## Description

In the late 1800s, Max Planck learned the impacts of radiation (electromagnetic waves). In the adhering to years, Albert Einstein prolonged the occupational to “quantize” radiation, eventually coming to be the quantum energy equation for light and for every frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g. Radio waves, microwaves, x-rays, etc). The equation, **E=hf**, is described as the **Planck relation** or the Planck-Einstein relation. The letter h is called after Planck, as Planck’s constant. Power (E) is concerned this constant h, and also to the frequency (f) the the electromagnetic wave.

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In power wave theory, Planck’s relation defines the power of a transverse wave, emitted or soaked up as one electron transitions energy levels in an atom. Once an electron is included within one atom, damaging wave interference between protons in the nucleus and also the electron causes destructive waves, bring about binding energy. This binding energy becomes the energy of a photon the is released once an electron is recorded or moves says in one atom. The electron’s vibration reasons a transverse wave and the photon’s power is based upon the frequency the this vibration.

This energy and also its source is very similar to Coulomb’s law, with the exception that one is measured together energy and also one is measured together a force. In one atom, the electron’s place is secure in an orbit and it is therefore stored energy. When electrons interact and also cause motion, it is measured as a force, as watched in the following page on F=kqq/r2.

## Derivation – classic Constants

The Planck relation have the right to be obtained using only Planck constants (classical constants), and also the electron’s energy at distance (r). The derivation is very similar to the Coulomb’s regulation as they room both concerned the electron’s energy at distance. Power is conserved, however wave development (geometry) changes, as described in the geometry of spacetime page. The geometries (α1 and α2) are described in Eq. 1.3.2. When every one of the variables in the α2 ratio are the electron’s classical radius (re), v the exemption of slant length (l), i m sorry is πre, that resolves to it is in the well structure constant (described in Eq. 1.3.5). Further details can be uncovered in the *Geometry that Spacetime* paper.

## Proof

**Planck Constant**: solving for the classic constants in Eq. 1.3.11 for Planck continuous yields the exact numerical value and also units.

**Hydrogen Frequency **(Ground State): resolving for Eq. 1.3.12 at the Bohr radius (a0) because that a hydrogen atom (no constructive tide interference- Δ=1) returns the correct frequency.

## Derivation – tide Constants

The source starts through a difference in longitudinal wave power from the Energy Wave Equation native the wave continuous form, together the particle’s vibration create a secondary, transverse wave. However, it likewise requires explanation about the source of a transverse tide that deserve to be discovered in the Photons section. Additional details can be found, consisting of the recommendation to Eq. 1.16, in the *Key Physics Equations and also Experiments* paper.

## Proof

**Planck Constant**: solving for the tide constants in Eq. 2.3.9 because that Planck continuous yields the exact numerical value and units.

**Hydrogen Frequency **(Ground State): resolving for Eq. 2.3.4 at the Bohr radius (a0) because that a hydrogen atom (amplitude element is one – δ=1) returns the correct frequency.

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**Rydberg Unit that Energy**: addressing for the power of a hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius (a0) in Eq. 2.3.6 returns the Rydberg unit the energy.