DEÁK, FERENCDEÁK, FERENC (also well-known as Francis Deák; 1803–1876), Hungarian politician and statesman, described as the Sage the the Fatherland.

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Ferenc Deák was born a Catholic ~ above 17 October 1803 in Söjtör, Zala County, in southwestern Hungary. Members the the medium nobility, his household owned a manor home in bordering Kehida, where Deák later on loved come stay. Having lost his father as a tiny child, he thrived up as a ward of his brother and sister, come both of who he remained deeply attached. He never married and nothing is recognized of his exclusive life and passions. He to be admired for being patient, kind, charming, witty, cultivated, and exceedingly generous, yet he experienced from bouts the deep depression, which led to him come flee windy life periodically. This can explain why he was unable to match the brilliant political success of his modern the Hungarian patriot and statesman Lajos Kossuth, at the very least in revolutionary times.

Deák followed the classic career of the wealthier rural nobility by studying and practicing law as well as by occupying varying posts in the county administration. His choice to the national Diet in 1833 brought him into contact with the politics greats, that were often also Hungary"s foremost poets, writers, and linguistic innovators. His specialty in those feverish times ended up being judicial reform, indispensable if this semifeudal country was to enter the contemporary world. In 1842 Deák emancipated his serfs; a year later on he i was withdrawn from politics in disgust end a violent and rigged choice campaign. Still, he was viewed as the top liberal, and also when a bloodless change broke the end in in march 1848, that rejoined his fellow politicians at Pozsony (today Bratislava in Slovakia) where the diet was in session.

Having gone into Hungary"s first modern constitution government, appointed by the Habsburg emperor-king top top 7 April, Minister of justice Deák was significantly responsible for the redrawing that the country"s laws and for renegotiating Hungary"s relationships with the dynasty. Brand-new Hungary to be to be a can be fried state in an individual union with the rest of the Habsburg possessions, a proposition that was just temporarily acceptable to the besieged dynasty and also the new Austrian liberal government. Also, Hungary"s ethnic minorities, who together formed an absolute majority, now demanded the same political rights that Hungarians had completed in that year. The result was civil war and, in the so late fall, war in between Austria and also Hungary. Through year"s end, Kossuth was digital dictator and Deák had withdrawn to his estate.

The defeat of the war of self-reliance in respectable 1849 led to Kossuth and thousands of rather to flee abroad; an ext than a hundred were executed in ~ home. Deák, however, was not prosecuted and also could thus end up being the unofficially leader the the passive resistance versus Austrian absolutism. He reentered politics in 1860 after the emperor-king Francis Joseph (r. 1848–1916) issued the so-called October Diploma, i m sorry offered limited constitutional dominance to the peoples of the monarchy. Having at an initial insisted that Hungary be given earlier the structure of April 1848, Deák now progressively moved toward a solution that would permit the foreign and the military affairs of the monarchy to be handled by typical ministries. However not till after the defeat of the Austrian army by the Prussians in 1866 did the leader come approximately to accepting the famed Compromise agreement of 1867 and also the production of what happened commonly called Austria-Hungary. In these negotiations, Deák was powerfully helped by the empress-queen Elizabeth (r. 1854–1898), that was his admirer. The new state, i beg your pardon was started on the ethics of Western-style liberalism, lugged emancipation come all religious groups, consisting of the Jews. It was Deák"s crowning achievement. He decreased to end up being prime minister and also continued to live merely in a Budapest hotel.

The damage Agreement and also the reform regulations of 1868 permitted Hungary come progress economically at a phenomenal pace, however they walk not settle the problem either the the landless in a nation of substantial aristocratic chateaus or the of relations with the nationalities. For the Slavs and also Romanians in the monarchy, the department of powers in between Austro-Germans and Hungarians seemed to it is in directed against them. Lajos Kossuth in exile likewise strongly condemned the agreement, which, in his prophetic view, tied Hungary"s fate come Austria, and also through Austria come the German Reich. Because that others, the ruling "Deák Party" was not sufficiently nationalistic. Disillusioned by houses of parliament quarrels, Deák gradually withdrew indigenous politics, dice in Budapest on 28 January 1876. His name represents the idea of wise damage with premium powers, be it Germany of world War II, or the Soviet Union following the defeat of the 1956 transformation in Hungary.

See alsoAustria-Hungary; Kossuth, Lajos.

bibliography

Deák, Ferenc. Deák Ferencz: beszédei. 6 vols. Edited by ManóKónyi. Budapest, 1903.

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——. Válogatott politikai írások és beszédek. Edited by András Molnár and also Ágnes Deák. Budapest, 2001.