- This is a map of whatthe ameri looked choose at roughly the year 1750. And as you can see, itwas because that the many part, split as swarms by abunch of europe powers. Most influential is Spain. You deserve to see in this peach brownish color, it had regulate all the waysouth as modern-day Chile and Argentina and all the means as far north as modern-day Texas and also California. You also see significantcontrol by the Portuguese in what will ultimately be Brazil. The French have at thispoint part territory, especially in north Americaand in numerous islands in the Caribbean andthe British, of course, have regulate along the eastcoast of phibìc America. And also they additionally have severalislands in the Caribbean and the Atlantic. Together we fast forward 100 years, we're going to check out a dramatic change. Notification roughly a hundred years later, most of what provided to bethese European colonies have now achieved independence. In other videos, we go insome depth native 1776 come 1783. You have the AmericanWar because that Independence. You see on this map now the United says is an elevation country. Native 1791 to 1804, youhave Toussaint Louveture lead the revolt versus French control, ultimately gaining independenceand creating Haiti. From 1807 to 1830, you havea series of changes in Latin America, many of which were led by Simon Bolivar, that was aCrejo, or Creole, Venezuelan. The hatchet Creole has actually manymeanings in modern language, but in this context, it refers to someone of greatly Spanish descent whowas born in the brand-new World. And also Simon Bolivar theatre an active role in afford independencefrom Spain because that Venezuela, what will eventuallybe Columbia and also Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and also thecountry that will ultimately be named for him, Bolivia. So over there is an amazing question here. What led to every one of these revolutions? The map the I proved you before, that colonial map the the Americas, these nests had to be inplace for number of hundred years prior to these revolutions. Why did every one of these revolutions happen around at the very same time? Well, one overarching ideais that as we enter into the 1700s, you have theintellectual movement recognized as the Enlightenment. There were many authorsand many publications affiliated in the Enlightenment, but perhaps most famous isthe Encyclopedie in French, or Encyclopedia, which saidthe intent of collecting much of the scientificand political science, expertise of the time and is taken into consideration one of the central textsof the Enlightenment. And also it to be a series of short articles published indigenous the 1750s all theway until the 1770s. And to gain a sense ofit, right here is one excerpt that an post by one of the authors, Denis Diderot, consideredone that the primary actors in the Enlightenment. "No man has received from nature "the appropriate to command others. "Liberty is gift fromheaven, and also each individual "of the exact same specieshas the best to gain "it as shortly as that enjoysthe usage of reason." and so as soon as we get into theDeclaration of Independence, written by thomas Jefferson,he borrows heavily from these ideas of the Enlightenment. Now, the Haitian Revolutionwas partially motivated by these principles of the Enlightenment, however they were additionally helped by the truth that France to be undergoingits own transformation at the time and it was not in the place to exert strong controlover a far flung colony. The French Revolutionlasts from 1789 to 1799 at which point NapoleonBonaparte takes control of France and starts the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon make the efforts to store controlof what would eventually be Haiti, was an incrediblyvaluable resource. It developed a good chunk ofcoffee and also sugar in the world. That was exceptionally profitablefor the plantation owners and for France as a nation. But between the concepts of the Enlightenment and also the French Revolution,the servants of Haiti led at first by Toussaint Louverture, to be able to overthrow andset increase their own nation, i beg your pardon is the an initial timethat this has happened from a successful servant revolt. This is a map the the empirethat Napoleon creates at the peak and as you can see, you watch France, yet he'sable to take over much of modern-day Germany,Italy, that goes to war v Portugal and also theneventually Spain as well. Both far-ranging colonialpowers in south America. For this reason it's in this context,you have actually the knowledge as we obtain into the 1700s. You already have the instance of the American war for Independence. 13 colonies being ableto declare self-reliance from among the largestpowers in ~ the time. Then a effective slaverevolt to develop their own nation againstanother far-ranging power.

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And also once Spain and also Portugalare fighting Napoleon coupled with the ideasof the Enlightenment and also the examples of theUnited States and also Haiti, it inspires a whole other series of revolts in Latin America, numerous of which were led through Simon Bolivar. And so by the time we get to 1850, much of the Europeanimperialism in the americas has involved an end.