Extrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify on the Earth"s surface, whereas intrusive igneous rocks cool and solidify beneath the Earth"s surface.

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The liquid portion (mobile ions of the eight most common minerals found in the Earth"s crust) called melt, the solid portion which consists of silicate mineral crystals, and gaseous portion called volatiles.
Which of the choices below lists the 4 basic compositional groups of igneous rocks, ranging from the highest silica content to the lowest silica content?
A geologist sends you a sample that was collected in the field. You find that it is a gray-colored igneous rock containing amphibole and intermediate plagioclase feldspar. Using Bowen"s Reaction Series as a guide, how would you describe its composition?
Can you determine what type of igneous rock would result from various cooling histories and locations? Review the following rock photographs and determine their cooling histories. Place each image in its appropriate bin.
Intrusive Igneous Rock- DIORITE & GRANITEExtrusive Igneous Rock- RHYOLITEPorphyritic Igneous Rock- ANDESITE PORPHYRY
Use your understanding of Bowen"s Reaction Series to determine which of the rocks below will crystallize the fastest. The chemical composition of the rocks is:- DIORITE: amphibole, sodium- and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, and biotite- GABBRO: pyroxene, calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar, amphibole, and olivine- GRANITE: quartz, potassium feldspar, sodium-rich plagioclase feldspar, amphibole, muscovite, and biotite- PERIDOTITE: olivine, pyroxene, and calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar
The progressive nucleation of minerals from the melt leaves the magma depleted in certain elements. This change in magma composition is called magmatic differentiation and accounts for the great variety of igneous rocks found in nature. The separation of liquid and solid phases through crystal settling further contributes to this diversity.Use your understanding of Bowen"s Reaction Series and crystal settling to determine which of the following mineral associations should not be found in nature.
If an igneous rock is heated, which mineral will be the very last mineral will be the very last mineral left to melt according to the Bowen"s Reaction Series?
How do the crystallization and settling of the earliest formed minerals affect the composition of the remaining magma?
After the earliest formed minerals have settled, the resulting magma will be more felsic than the original magma.
Crystallization of part of a magma, leaving behind melted rock with a different composition from the original magma.

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Different elements in the magma form crystals at different rates, leaving behind more of the unused elements.
What type of magma would you expect to see after crystallization of minerals containing significant amounts of iron?
Which of the following statements best represents the relationship between magma and crystals formed from that magma?
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