This overview shows exactly how to wire many 240 volt hot tubs and portable home spas. We"ve contained photos, a step-by-step hook-up movie & hot tub schematic wiring diagrams.

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This information is detailed to aid you to it is in a more informed consumer. We advise hiring a license is granted electrician to wire and install a spa.

If you"re no confident or qualified to do electric wiring, there"s quiet installation prep-work you deserve to do to minimize expenses. We"ll go you with a usual project to present what"s involved.

Jump to: 120V hot Tubs

CAUTION: electric work and repairs deserve to be dangerous, especially approximately water. There is a hazard of shock or electrocution, which could an outcome in significant injury or death. Us strongly recommend that hot bath tub electrical wiring be referred to a licensed electrician. Neighborhood code demands for wiring vary and may different from the educational examples on this web site. The neighborhood code regulations must be followed, with permits and inspections obtained. The installer have to read and also follow the hot tub owner"s manual and associated electrical component owner"s manuals and instructions.

Shut off electrical power to the hot bathtub or pool at the service panel prior to any kind of inspections or work. Not correct wiring may damages equipment and also void the spa manufacturer"s warranty.

Disclaimer

Your electrical Service

Before installing a major appliance favor a hot tub, recognize if the electric business will handle the extra load. It"s usually not a problem, since most homes constructed in the critical 30-40 years have actually at least 100 amp service. 150-200A is typical in many newer homes. Dashboard ratings are generally labeled close to the key breaker in ~ the top.

It"s typically misunderstood the the total amps of all set up circuit-breakers should not exceed the organization panel"s indicated amp rating. This is false - volume is figured out by pack calculations, not the dimension or variety of its breakers.

Spa Wiring Basics - 240V Systems

We"ll start with summary of the electric requirements for wiring a spa, illustrated by our interaction wiring diagrams. A 240V spa have to be gave by a circuit i beg your pardon meets its fill requirements (amperage) as indicated in owner"s manual.

This means that the feeder breaker (in the house organization panel) should be the the mentioned size. Additionally, the GFCI breaker in the disconnect panel need to be at least that size, and also GFCI defended for safety.

We"re making use of a usual outdoor portable residence spa installation for our example.

The three electric assemblies affiliated in this project are the:

House Circuit Breaker PanelOutside Disconnect GFCI Box*

MW Spa GFCI load Center/Disconnect dashboard for warm Tubs up to 50A v bonus 120V Branch Circuit Expandability

*The National electric Code (NEC) mentions installation of one approved manual disconnect device. It must be surrounding to the warm tub, at least 5 feet away, and within line of sight.

The NEC also requires a 120V receptacle in ~ a 10-20 foot distance from the spa.

Installing our Backyard Spa

Now let"s take it a look at a usual backyard installation. In our movie below, we"ve currently poured a level cement slab and placed our hot bathtub on it.

Per the owner"s manual, our hot bath tub requires a 240V, 50 amp 4-wire electric hook-up, utilizing AWG #6 copper wire. The electrician is running all buried wiring in 1" strict Sch-40 grey PVC electric conduit. Describe your owner"s manual for wire requirements.

Select the tabs listed below to follow the project from Planning v Hook-up:


3 & 4 cable Spa electrical Systems

A large portion that 240V spas manufactured today call for a 50 amp 4-wire electric service. Some warm tubs have load demands of 30A or 40A, and a few even 60A. These requirements correspond come the size of the new feed circuit breaker mounted in the house company panel. The Disconnect GFCI panel"s amp rating can be equal to, or larger than the feeding breaker in the key panel.

Hot tubs with combined voltage contents (such as 120V ozonator and 240V heater) need 4-wire systems. This way they require an electric circuit offering (2) hot wires, (1) neutral, and (1) soil wire. Examine the owner"s manual.

*

The two warm legs (black + red) carry out 240 volts (120V +120V). One hot leg through the neutral (white) wire offers 120V. The ground cable (green) tote no current except once a brief circuit to ground occurs. This reasons the circuit breaker to pilgrimage on overload (not come be perplexed with the safety duty of the GFCI).

Jump to: 120V hot Tubs

Many larger 240V spas and some newer ones usage 3-wire installations. This consist of just 2 warm wires and a soil wire, without a neutral wire.

Both 3-wire and also 4-wire spas have to be GFCI protected. A 4-wire hot bathtub must not be associated to a 3-wire service. Appropriate grounding is additionally essential.

In either case, the disconnect panel should be provided with 4-wire service in order for the GFCI to function correctly. Describe the spa owner"s hand-operated for wire gauge, etc.

Note: Certain models of warm Spring and Caldera spas (Watkins Manufacturing) need special subpanel disconnects. They have 2 different 240V GFCI breakers in the load center.

Hot bathtub Wiring Diagrams

Use a GFCI disconnect designed for 240V hot tubs, 4 or 3 cable spa types. The interaction schematic diagram below shows 3 and 4 cable configurations. Choose the wiring configuration that your spa requires:


Installation Basics:

Service panel Breaker

Size the feeder circuit breaker in the business panel according to the spa"s fill requirement. You can discover this details in the owner"s manual, or an electrician can determine the value for you. The pack rating the the disconnect box have to be better than or same to the breaker in the house service-panel.

The electrician can conveniently determine if your electrical panel have the right to accommodate the new 240V circuit required for this project. There also must it is in two obtainable slots in package for a double-pole breaker. In many homes, this will not it is in a problem.

Electricians

When choosing an electrician, be sure to ask around experience installing warm tubs, an especially 4-wire configurations.

GFCI Tripping as result of Miswired Neutral

The most common wiring wrong occurs through 4-wire systems. Unfortunately, we"ve discovered that also a few professional electricians fail on this one.

Attach the white neutral wire to the spa"s control box directly to the neutral terminal the the GFCI breaker. Check out our 4-wire diagrams above. Do not affix it come the sub-panel grounding bar. Miswiring it come ground instantly trips the GFCI as soon as energized, cutting strength to the hot tub.

PVC electrical Conduit and Fittings

We prefer the defense of buried conduit in a backyard setup where future digging may occur for planting scrubs, etc. PVC pipeline is simple to install and inexpensive. 18" is typically the required depth-- check with local authorities. Secure conduit to walls v U clamps.

In our example, 4 wires are provided in 1" PVC conduit, which although a little oversized, provides pulling the wire easier. For corner bends, broad 90° PVC elbows room used. Threaded PVC terminal adapters room cemented come the conduit for electrical box connections.

Our electrician used brief lengths of functional liquid-tight PVC conduit because that the connections to our spa manage pack. Native the outside wall surface through to the electrical business panel, the ran LB Condulet. The LB allows easy accessibility for to run the wires.

Frost expansion Joints

Where neighborhood code requires, usage PVC expansion-joints where conduit pipe emerges from the ground, enters a wall or wall-mounted enclosures.

These on slide couplings enable for transforms in class usually connected with frost heaves, to aid prevent break of the conduit.

Cutting & Cementing the PVC Conduit

PVC electric conduit have to be assembled before running wire. That is generally much easier to fish wires v conduit in the trench prior to it is buried.

Cuts must be do square, using a cutting tool or PVC wire-rope saw. Eliminate burrs through a energy knife and also medium-grit sandpaper. Dry-fit pieces before gluing.

PVC electrical conduit is joined with ideal PVC solvent-based cement. Joint surfaces have to be wiped clean before joining.

More information: NEMA overview Solvent-Cementing PVC Nonmetallic Conduit

Wire dimension & kind for hot Tubs

After reviewing the spa owner"s manual, ours electrician established that ours project necessary #6 THHN stranded copper wire. That used 4 individual insulated conductors: (1) red & (1) black-hot, (1) white-neutral, and (1) green-ground cable in our example.

Your wire gauge requirements may differ from ours example, depending on the spa manufacturer"s specification, password requirements, and wire type. Unusually long runs may require larger wire size, as determined by the electrician.

Note: Spa control box terminals normally cannot accommodate wire larger 보다 #6. Refer to the owner"s manual.

Direct-Burial UF-B Wiring

Some localities may allow direct funeral cable, at the very least for the operation from the organization panel to the disconnect box. Various other jurisdictions prohibit it. UF-B cable can be cumbersome to work-related with, follow to part electricians.

Pulling Wire

With appropriate preparations, pulling cable is no terribly difficult. ~ conduit is assembled, electricians use a small spring stole fish ice cream to route wires with it. The first few inches the the tape room coated through wire pulling lubricant. This help it slide smoothly over fitting edges and also around bends of the north conduit.

First, the ice is snaked v the north pipe, being mindful not come kink that by jamming. Then the wires room attached to the hook on its end, and also pulled earlier out

Carefully push the wires right into the conduit, keeping them separated and also straight, preventing kinks. Use lubricant to the wires as they get in the conduit. A 2nd person traction from the opposite finish with the fish tape tool.

Attaching Wires come the Fish Tape

A common mistake is to wrap all of the wires to the hook the the tape. This just results in a large knot which can get stuck or come undone. Here"s a much better method:

First, the fish ice cream is routed v the north conduit and also out the other end.Then about 6" the insulation is stripped off of every conductor.About 1/3 the the copper strands from every wire are separated and snipped out to make a thinner bundle. These will then fit much more easily v the hook eye.The bare cut-downs are then twisted snugly together with pliers.Now the copper braid is looped v the hook, and bent in half onto itself.Finally, the bundle is double-wrapped barber pole format with electrician"s tape. Start above the hook work down a few inches top top the insulated wires.Properly done, the assembly will appear tightly wrapped and symmetrical.The tape-covered bundle have to be coated v wire lube for much easier pulling.

NOTE: (4) #6 conductors pull much simpler through 1" conduit 보다 3/4" diameter. An approved, non-flammable electrical wire lubricant have to be liberally used.

You have the right to fish wires native either finish of the conduit. If there room tight bends closer come one end, pulling indigenous that end sometimes provides less resistance.

It"s less complicated to traction wires if there"s room come lay them out to their complete length. This helps protect against the kinks that an outcome from spooled wire.

After the wires have been routed, the wrapped wire cut-downs attached to the fish tape space snipped off and discarded.

CAUTION: never use a fish tape roughly electrified wires. Additionally, never fish into or the end of the electrical organization panel, also if the key breaker is off.

Terminal cable Connections

Wherever wires space attached to terminals, the screw connections should be tight. Loose attached wiring will certainly inevitably an outcome in overheating, burned insulation, and failure that the circuit.

Spa manage Pack

In ours example, the electrician set up flex conduit for the strength wires inside the hot tub"s devices bay.

Things to avoid:

Don"t forget to review your spa manufacturer"s owner manual prior to installing.

Don"t forget to obtain an electrical permit.

Don"t install a hot tub under overhead strength lines.

Don"t run hidden wiring under the spa.

Don"t attach a 4-wire hot bath tub to a 3-wire circuit-- it would certainly be unsafe & illegal.

Don"t use undersized wire.

Don"t use aluminum wire.

Don"t download outdoor lighting within 10 feet of hot tubs.

Don"t use your hot tub until the electrical installation has been approved.

Don"t forget to inspect the GFCI an equipment frequently, making use of its TEST button.

Don"t forget to keep water balance and sanitizer.

Don"t forget to change & lock your spa sheathe after each use.

Don"t forget to gain your hot bathtub regularly!

Spas Requiring twin 240V GFCI Subpanel Breakers

Certain models of hot Spring and Caldera spas (Watkins Manufacturing), call for a distinct subpanel disconnects. These contain two separate GFCI breakers: one because that the heater, and also a second for the pump and other components.

These spas must not it is in wired to a single spa circuit breaker box such as our MW disconnect panel. Consult her owner"s manual, the dealer, or the manufacturer for installation information.

About 120V Portable hot Tubs

This guide is aimed in ~ 240 volt portable spa installations. If girlfriend have, or are getting a 120 volt plug-n-play spa, many of this info will not apply to you. However, a couple of spas are conveniently convertible to run on one of two people voltage models.

When configured for 120V use, spas in this class use a GFCI on the end of the power cord. This then plugs right into a standard committed household outlet. Extended GFCI-protected outlets have to be used outdoors. Converting these spas come hard-wired 240V serves 2 purposes: much faster heating time and ability to maintain temperature in cold weather.

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Read fist Statement

Other brand of devices may different from ours illustrations in figure and/or terminal configuration. Read equipment"s surroundings instructions.

Why the MW Spa GFCI pack Center/Disconnect is the far better choice:

Unfortunately, conventional pack centers frequently perform unreliably with warm tubs as result of the phenomenon referred to as errant tripping. This false tripping is a great frustration to homeowners and electricians alike. It is often incorrectly attributed come a trouble with the spa, when no difficulty exists.

Common GFCI breakers occasionally react to a regular spa condition as if it were a soil fault. Reactive loads that spa motors existing plus the resistance pack of heaters make common GFCI breakers unreliable at best.

Our Spa Disconnect GFCI panel solves this problems. It"s the reliable ground fault detector designed just for hot tubs. The specially-shielded GFCI prevents false tripping because of RF interference. That is likewise engineered because that low-voltage stability to prevent tripping because of brownouts, fluctuations and also mixed loads. If over there is a ground fault, the fast-acting GFCI soon disconnects the lines.

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Note: The NEC and many jurisdictions call for the surroundings of a 120V outdoor GFCI outlet. That is to be located 10-20 feet away from a spa or pool, because that safe operation of corded appliances.

Spa GFCI fill Center/Disconnect

"I was really impressed through the quality. Ns love that we were may be to include the outdoor GFCI electrical outlet (required by code whereby we live). We didn"t have to pay the electrician because that wiring a entirety separate circuit. The alone more than paid because that it!"