Calcium is an alkaline earth metal, the is a reactive pale yellow metal that creates a dark oxide-nitride layer once exposed come air. That physical and chemical properties space most comparable to its heavier homologues strontium and barium.

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The biggest use that metallic calcium is in steelmaking, due to its strong chemical affinity because that oxygen and also sulfur.

Pure calcium metal is now made commercially by heater lime with aluminum.


Protons and Neutrons in Calcium

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Calcium is a chemical aspect with atom number 20 which means there room 20 protons in its nucleus. Total variety of protons in the cell core is referred to as the atomic number of the atom and is offered the symbol Z. The total electrical charge of the cell nucleus is as such +Ze, whereby e (elementary charge) amounts to to 1,602 x 10-19 coulombs.

The full number of neutrons in the cell nucleus of an atom is called the neutron number of the atom and is provided the symbol N. Neutron number plus atomic number equals atom mass number: N+Z=A. The difference in between the neutron number and the atomic number is recognized as the neutron excess: D = N – Z = A – 2Z.

For stable elements, there is generally a range of stable isotopes. Isotopes space nuclides that have the same atomic number and are because of this the very same element, yet differ in the number of neutrons. Mass numbers of usual isotopes the Calcium are 40; 42; 43; 44; 46. 

Main isotopes of Chlorine

Natural calcium is a mixture of five stable isotope (40Ca, 42Ca, 43Ca, 44Ca, and also 46Ca) and one isotope with a half-life so long that it can be taken into consideration stable because that all practical purposes (48Ca, through a half-life of around 4.3 × 1019 years). Calcium is the very first (lightest) aspect to have six naturally developing isotopes.

Calcium-40 is created of 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and also 20 electrons. By much the most common isotope the calcium in nature is 40Ca, which makes up 96.941% of all herbal calcium. It is produced in the silicon-burning procedure from combination of alpha particles and also is the heaviest steady nuclide with equal proton and neutron numbers

Calcium-42 is written of 20 protons, 22 neutrons, and 20 electrons.

Calcium-43 is composed of 20 protons, 23 neutrons, and 20 electrons.

Calcium-44 is written of 20 protons, 24 neutrons, and also 20 electrons.

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Calcium-46 is created of 20 protons, 26 neutrons, and also 20 electrons. 46Ca and 48Ca are the first “classically stable” nuclides v a six-neutron or eight-neutron excess respectively. Although very neutron-rich for such a irradiate element, 48Ca is an extremely stable since it is a doubly magic nucleus, having actually 20 protons and 28 neutrons arranged in closed shells.