Gallium

aspect 31 of regular table is Gallium through atomic number 31, atomic load 69.723. Gallium, price Ga, has a Base focused Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial surname of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Gallium Facts, physical Properties, chemistry Properties, electronic configuration, Atomic and also Crystal Structure.


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Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium walk not happen in free form in nature, yet as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace quantities in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and also elemental gallium is a brittle heavy at short temperatures, and also melts in ~ 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly over room temperature).

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Gallium Facts

Read key information and also facts about element Gallium

surname Gallium
atom Number 31
atomic Symbol Ga
Atomic load 69.723
phase Solid
shade Silver
Classification post-transition metal
team in regular Table 13
Group Name boron family members
duration in periodic Table 4
Block in regular Table p-block
Electronic Configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Melting suggest 29.76 °C
Boiling suggest 2204 °C
Electronic shell Structure <2, 8, 18, 3>
CAS Number CAS7440-55-3

community
13
Al
14
Si
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
1
1
H
2
He
2
3
Li
4
Be
5
B
6
C
7
N
8
O
9
F
10
Ne
3
11
Na
12
Mg
13
Al
14
Si
15
P
16
S
17
Cl
18
Ar
4
19
K
20
Ca
21
Sc
22
Ti
23
V
24
Cr
25
Mn
26
Fe
27
Co
28
Ni
29
Cu
30
Zn
31
Ga
32
Ge
33
As
34
Se
35
Br
36
Kr
5
37
Rb
38
Sr
39
Y
40
Zr
41
Nb
42
Mo
43
Tc
44
Ru
45
Rh
46
Pd
47
Ag
48
Cd
49
In
50
Sn
51
Sb
52
Te
53
I
54
Xe
6
55
Cs
56
Ba
72
Hf
73
Ta
74
W
75
Re
76
Os
77
Ir
78
Pt
79
Au
80
Hg
81
Tl
82
Pb
83
Bi
84
Po
85
At
86
Rn
7
87
Fr
88
Ra
104
Rf
105
Db
106
Sg
107
Bh
108
Hs
109
Mt
110
Ds
111
Rg
112
Cn
113
Nh
114
Fl
115
Mc
116
Lv
117
Ts
118
Og
Lanthanides
57
La
58
Ce
59
Pr
60
Nd
61
Pm
62
Sm
63
Eu
64
Gd
65
Tb
66
Dy
67
Ho
68
Er
69
Tm
70
Yb
71
Lu
Actinide
89
Ac
90
Th
91
Pa
92
U
93
Np
94
Pu
95
Am
96
Cm
97
Bk
98
Cf
99
Es
100
Fm
101
Md
102
No
103
Lr

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How to locate Gallium on regular Table

Periodic table is arranged by atom number, variety of protons in the nucleus i m sorry is exact same as variety of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Routine table beginning at top left ( atom number 1) and also ends at bottom best (atomic number 118). Therefore you can straight look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.

Another means to read routine table and also locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To find Gallium on regular table look because that cross section of group 13 and duration 4 in the modern-day periodic table.

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Table of Contents


History
Abundance
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Crystal Structure
Atomic & orbital Properties
Chemical Properties
Isotopes
Health and also Safety Parameters and Guidelines
Databases
Compare Gallium with various other elements

Gallium History

The facet Gallium was uncovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium obtained its name from Gallia, the Latin surname for France

Gallium Presence: variety in Nature and also Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth"s Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
variety in world 1×10-6%
abundance in sun 4×10-6%
variety in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth"s crust 1.9e-05
diversity in oceans 3×10-9%
abundance in human beings N/A

Crystal structure of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base focused Orthorhombic.

The decision structure have the right to be defined in terms of its unit Cell. The unit cells repeats itself in three dimensional an are to type the structure.

Unit cell Parameters

The unit cabinet is represented in regards to its lattice parameters, which are the lengths the the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and also c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles in between them Lattice angles (alpha, beta and also gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The location of the atoms within the unit cell are described by the collection of atom positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a referral lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the ide of room groups. All possible symmetric kinds of particles in three-dimensional room are described by the 230 room groups (219 unique types, or 230 if chiral duplicates are considered distinct.

room Group name Cmca
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space Group Number 64
Crystal framework Base focused Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and also Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the digital shell framework is <2, 8, 18, 3> v Atomic term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.


atom Number 31
Number of electrons (with no charge) 31
Number that Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number of Neutrons 39
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) <2, 8, 18, 3>
Electron configuration 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1 1;2;3
Atomic hatchet Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell framework of Gallium - electron per power level


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Ground State digital Configuration the Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The soil state digital configuration the Neutral Gallium atom is 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas the the preceding period, is abbreviated together . For atoms with numerous electrons, this notation have the right to become prolonged and for this reason an abbreviation notation is used.This is crucial as the is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost shell that recognize the chemistry properties the the element.

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Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gallium

Complete ground state digital configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated digital configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic structure of Gallium

Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, when it"s covalent radius is 126 pm.

atomic Radius

136 pm (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 pm (1.26 Å)
van der Waals Radius 187 pm
ghost Cross ar 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum that Gallium

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Gallium chemistry Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and also electron affinity

The electron affinity that Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization power of Gallium

Refer come table listed below for Ionization energies the Gallium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gallium physical Properties

thickness 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson proportion N/A

Hardness the Gallium - test to measure of Hardness that Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium electrical Properties

Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Describe table listed below for the electric properties the Gallium

electric Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting point 1.083

Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties

thermal Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal expansion 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic type Diamagnetic
Curie suggest N/A
mass Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical properties of Gallium

Refractive index N/A

Acoustic nature of Gallium

rate of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium heat Properties - Enthalpies and also thermodynamics

Refer come table listed below for thermal properties of Gallium

Melting point 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling point 2477 K (2204 °C)
vital Temperature N/A
Superconducting allude 1.083

Enthalpies of Gallium

warm of combination 5.59 kJ/mol
warmth of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
warmth of burning N/A

Gallium isotope - nuclear Properties that Gallium

Isotopes the rhodium. Naturally arising Gallium has 2 secure isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.


Isotope Isotope massive % diversity T half Decay setting
56Ga
57Ga
58Ga
59Ga
60Ga
61Ga
62Ga
63Ga
64Ga
65Ga
66Ga
67Ga
68Ga
69Ga 60.108% secure N/A
70Ga
71Ga 39.892% secure N/A
72Ga
73Ga
74Ga
75Ga
76Ga
77Ga
78Ga
79Ga
80Ga
81Ga
82Ga
83Ga
84Ga
85Ga
86Ga

Regulatory and Health - Health and also Safety Parameters and also Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
dot Hazard class 8
dot Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA risks N/A
NFPA health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition suggest N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

perform of unique identifiers to find the facet in assorted chemical registry databases

Database id number
CAS Number - chemistry Abstracts organization (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

Compare Gallium v all Group 13 elements

Gallium vs Boron Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs Nihonium

Compare Gallium v all post-transition metal elements

Gallium vs Aluminium Gallium vs Indium Gallium vs believe Gallium vs Thallium Gallium vs lead Gallium vs Bismuth Gallium vs Nihonium Gallium vs Flerovium Gallium vs Moscovium Gallium vs Livermorium