The pH scale gives us with a an approach of explicate the level of acidity, or basicity of a solution.

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The pH scale

The hatchet "pH" derives indigenous the french for "potential hydrogen". The pH scale ranges from 0 come 14.


The pH is a measure up of the concentration of hydrogen. The is identified by the an adverse of the logarithm that hydrogen ion concentration:


The greater the hydrogen ion concentration the lower the pH value. PH can be measured v a pH meter, or v pH record (paper containing a mixture of signs to reason a constant color change).

pH / mol dm-3
1 0.1

1 x 10-3
1 x 10-4
1 x 10-5
1 x 10-6
1 x 10-7
1 x 10-8
1 x 10-9
1 x 10-10
1 x 10-14

As can be seen in the table, a change in pH worth of 1 unit is equivalent to a ten-fold change in hydrogen ion concentration.

Example: How numerous times greater is the hydrogen ion concentration of a systems with pH=1 than a equipment with pH=3?

pH1 has actually a hydrogen ion concentration the 1 x 10-1 mol dm-3. (0.1 mol dm-3)

pH3 has actually a hydrogen ion concentration the 1 x 10-3 mol dm-3. (0.001 mol dm-3)

Therefore pH1 has actually a hydrogen ion concentration 100 times better than pH3.


Strongly acidic

pH 1 represents strong acid, gaining progressively weaker together the pH rises. PH 7 is the neutral value of pure water at 25ºC and also 1 setting pressure.

If we have actually two remedies with your pH values, the lower one will certainly be more acidic and also the higher one will certainly be an ext basic (though they might both still it is in basic/acidic through respect to water in ~ pH 7).


Highly basic

Solutions v a pH of better than 13 are extremely basic. They present blue/purple to universal indicator and also blue come litmus.

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Highly basic solutions include sodium hydroxide(aq), potassium hydroxide(aq) and also barium hydroxide(aq). Such remedies are frequently said to be "caustic". For example "caustic soda" is one old hatchet for sodium hydroxide. A 0.1 mol dm-3 solution of salt hydroxide has actually a pH of 13.



Generally taken into consideration to be pH 7. This is the pH the pure water in ~ 25ºC. Neutral solutions have actually no impact on litmus paper and turn Universal indicator green.