Most atoms execute not have actually eight electrons in their valence electron shell. Some atoms have only a few electrons in their outer shell, while part atoms absence only one or two electrons to have an octet. In instances where one atom has actually three or under valence electrons, the atom may shed those valence electrons quite quickly until what continues to be is a lower shell that includes an octet. Atom that shed electrons gain a hopeful charge as a resultbecause they room left v fewer negatively fee electrons to balance the positive charges the the proton in the nucleus. Positive charged ion are dubbed cations. Many metals end up being cations once they do ionic compounds.

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Cations

A neutral salt atom is likely to accomplish an octet in the outermost shell by losing its one valence electron.

The cation produced in this way, Na+, is dubbed the salt ion to identify it indigenous the element. The outermost covering of the sodium ion is the 2nd electron shell, which has eight electron in it. The octet preeminence has to be satisfied. Figure (PageIndex1) is a graphical explicate of this process.

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api/deki/files/114134/3.2B.jpg?revision=1" />Figure (PageIndex2): The formation of a Chlorine Ion. ~ above the left, the chlorine atom has 17 electrons. Top top the right, the chloride ion has actually 18 electrons and also has a 1− charge.

The surname for optimistic and an adverse ions space pronounced CAT-eye-ons and also ANN-eye-ons, respectively.

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In plenty of cases, facets that belong to the same team (vertical column) top top the routine table kind ions through the same charge due to the fact that they have actually the same variety of valence electrons. Thus, the periodic table i do not care a tool for mental the charges on numerous ions. Because that example, all ion made indigenous alkali metals, the first column ~ above the routine table, have a 1+ charge. Ion made native alkaline planet metals, the 2nd group top top the routine table, have a 2+ charge. Top top the various other side that the periodic table, the next-to-last column, the halogens, kind ions having a 1− charge. Figure (PageIndex3) shows how the fee on numerous ions deserve to be predicted by the location of an facet on the regular table. Note the convention of very first writing the number and also then the sign on a ion with multiple charges. The barium cation is written Ba2+, no Ba+2.