The alkali steels are top top the left column of the routine table highlighted in warm pink. Bamlou/Getty Images
There space alkali metals all around you appropriate now. Sodium is uncovered in table salt, lithium in her phone battery and potassium in her bananas. Alkali metals make up six different aspects found in the very first column that the regular table. This are:

They"re part of the S-block of aspects in the periodic table, that together with hydrogen, helium, calcium, and also others, have their outermost electron in one S-orbital. The alkali metals are soft steels that are extremely reactive through water and oxygen. They"re for this reason soft that you can reduced them v a plastic knife. They additionally have a silver-like shine and are an excellent conductors that heat and also light.

You are watching: How many valence electrons does alkali metals have

Alkali steels are so-called because when castle react with water, they create highly alkaline substances. Alkalinity describes the pH the the substance, or the capacity to neutralize acid. Substances the are highly alkaline can type strong bases able come neutralize acids and maintain a steady ph level.

Every facet has a nucleus, comprised of protons and neutrons, and alkali metals are no different. Neighboring the cell nucleus of atoms room electrons, which room particles v a an adverse charge. This electrons exist in energy shells roughly the cell core of the atoms, every of which can hold a varying variety of electrons. The an initial shell deserve to hold up to 2 electrons, the second up come eight, the third, 18 and the fourth, 32. It"s this shells the electrons and how alkali steels are structured that make them for this reason reactive.

All atoms normally want to have actually a completely full outermost covering of electrons. However, elements in that very first column that the periodic table all have actually one electron in their outermost shell. This outermost covering is likewise called the valence shell, and also the electrons that reside over there are referred to as valence electrons.

Having only one electron in the outermost shell renders it an extremely easy for the atom of alkali steels to reach points of stability – they just need to shed one electron! This willingness and ease of shedding an electron to reach a state the equilibrium is recognized as high reactivity. In fact, reactivity in chemistry is characterized by the variety of electrons in the outermost shell. Noble gases (elements choose neon and helium) are an extremely unreactive since their outermost electron shells space full.

"Since the alkali metals only have one valence electron, they typically attain this state by giving up that electron. In this process, the alkali steel is stated to be oxidized, and also whatever bring away the electron from the alkali steel is reduced. All of the alkali steels like to offer up their single valence electron," says Dr. Chip Nataro, chemistry professor at Lafayette university in Easton, Pennsylvania. "As electrons have actually a fee of -1, shedding an electron causes the atom to have a fee of +1. As soon as this happens, the atom is referred to as one ion and since it would have a optimistic charge, the is dubbed a cation. So, all of the alkali metals like to make cations that have a charge of +1."

Since alkali steels are for this reason reactive, they space usually uncovered in conjunction v other metals in nature.

If an element is extremely reactive, it"s harder to find naturally.

"All that these aspects were first discovered in compound some of the discoveries are tough to attribute due to the abundance and also usage that the compounds," claims Nataro. "As friend go under the regular table, the alkali steels become more inclined to lose their valence electron" and thus, "the lot of the element found in nature additionally decreases, later exploration dates."

When were Alkali metals Discovered?

Lithium was first discovered in 1817 when Johan respectable Arfwedson, a swedish chemist, was evaluating mineral ore. Cesium and rubidium were found in 1860 and 1861, respectively, by German chemists Robert Bunsen (who lent his surname to the Bunsen burner) and also Gustav Kirchhoff (who devised Kirchhoff"s legislations for electric current). Francium, the many reactive the the alkali steels we at this time know of was found in 1939 through French scientist Marguerite Perey at the Curie academy in Paris.

For instance, salt doesn"t take place in nature and must be all set from compounds. Sodium and also potassium room essential elements to day-to-day life, through sodium helping to control blood pressure and also move electrolytes transparent cells. Sodium also combines with other compounds to make table salt and also baking soda. Potassium helps manage blood pressure and also glucose and also is discovered in fertilizers. Lithium, as pointed out before, is offered in battery production and is likewise a mood-stabilizing drug.

The an ext reactive elements, cesium, rubidium and also francium, have fewer organic uses. Cesium is supplied in atom clocks, drilling and also in creating optical glass amongst other highly dedicated applications. Rubidium is provided in clinical imaging and also vacuum tubes. Francium, i beg your pardon is really rare, doesn"t have plenty of commercial applications however is provided in research and to diagnose some develops of cancer.

Finally, all the alkali metals are also incredibly valuable teaching tools in the field of chemistry. Teacher love demonstrating the rule of reactivity by dropping an alkali metal in water only for the course to watch in awe as it spews fire and also explodes.

See more: The United States Naval Observatory ( Usno Navy Mil Data Docs One Day : U

Francium is the rarest the the alkali metals and also the 2nd rarest aspect in the Earth"s crust (only 340-550 grams or around 1 pound is approximated to be in the Earth"s crust). It likewise happens to be extremely radioactive and has a preferably life of only 22 minutes. Francium has actually never been dropped in water, since it"s for this reason rare and also so expensive, but scientists do expect that would have actually the highest possible reaction of any alkali metal.