It takes a certain amount that heat energy or thermal power to rotate ice into water and also water right into steam.

You are watching: How much heat energy is needed to melt 1 gram of ice?

When you heat a material, you are including thermal kinetic power to its molecules and also usually increasing its temperature. The only exemption is once the material reaches that melting point or boil point. At those two temperatures, the heat power goes into transforming the state or step of the material. After ~ the state has actually changed, the temperature will climb again with included thermal energy.

The price temperature alters is the details heat the the material. The quantity of power required to melt the product is called the latent warm of melting. This all can be depicted in showing exactly how much heat is forced to adjust ice right into water and also then change the water into steam.

Questions girlfriend may have actually include:

What systems of measure up are provided in turning ice into steam? just how is particular heat used? exactly how is latent warm used?

This lesson will certainly answer those questions. Valuable tool: devices Conversion

Units that measurement

Since we are measuring the amount of heat required to do these changes, we require to understand the definitions of the various units involved.

Heat transfer

Heat is the total kinetic power of every the molecule in one object. Although energy is commonly measured in joules, a an ext common unit for warm is the calorie, which is identified as the lot of heat compelled to adjust the temperature of 1 gram the water by 1 Celsius degree. There is a conversion factor to called joules to calories, however we won"t worry around that here.

Note: Calories space abbreviated together cal and also grams together g. Also, oC way degrees Celsius.

In the English measure system, they use the BTU (British thermal unit), which is the amount of heat required to change the temperature that 1 pound of water by 1 Fahrenheit degree. The BTU is viewed in the united States once referring come the volume of a furnace.

Specific heat

Materials differ in their capacity to store thermal energy. Because that example, a product like steel will heat up much faster than water or wood. The measure up of exactly how much heat is compelled to change the temperature the a unit massive of a problem by 1 level is referred to as its specific heat.

There room charts easily accessible listing the specific heat of assorted materials. The chart listed below shows the certain heat of ice, water and heavy steam in units of calorie every gram-degree Celsius.

(Note that all items are listed with the same variety of decimal points. That indicates the same accuracy because that each. Also, the zero in prior of the decimal point assures that the leader will recognize it is a decimal suggest and no a fly speck.)

State the water Specific warm in cal/g-oC







Specific heat of miscellaneous states of water

In various other words, it would certainly take twice as plenty of calories to warm some water one degree than it would to warmth the very same mass of ice one degree.

Latent heat

When any type of material is heated to the temperature whereby it alters state, the temperature will stay the same until all the material changes state. That method ice water will remain at 0oC (32oF) until all the ice is melted. The very same thing applies when cooling the materials.

The reason is that energy must it is in expended to adjust the state from solid to fluid or from fluid to gas. Likewise, energy must be withdrawn to readjust the state when cooling the material. The quantity of energy required is speak to the latent heat of freeze or boiling. The chart below shows the latent warm or energy required to change the claims of water.

Change the state that water Latent warmth in cal/g

Melting / Freezing


Boiling / Condensation


Latent heat compelled to change state that water


A good way to know the principles is to solve a problem.

Suppose we have 50g of ice at -10oC. We desire to warm the material until that all turns to steam at 110oC. How much warm is required?

With a difficulty that is complex like this one, the is an excellent to rest it down right into pieces and also solve each part individually. This likewise helps to explain the logic used in the solution.

1. Heater ice

exactly how much warm would be required to raise 50g of ice to its melt point?

The ice cream temperature must be raised 10 degrees to with 0oC.

Since the details heat of ice cream is 0.50 cal/g-oC, that way that 0.50 calories is necessary to raise 1g of ice 1oC. Thus, it would take 50 x 0.50 calories to raise 50g up 1oC and 10 x 50 x 0.50 = 250 cal to raise the ice cream to its melting point.

2. Melting ice

exactly how much heat would be compelled to melt the 50g that ice?

The latent heat for melting ice is 80 cal/g. That means that 1g that ice needs 80 cal of warmth to melt.

Thus, 50g needs 50 x 80 = 4000 cal to melt.

3. Heating water

just how much warmth is forced to warmth 50g the water indigenous 0oC come its boiling point of 100oC?

Since the details heat that water is 1.00 cal/g-oC, that means that 1.00 calorie is needed to raise 1g the water 1oC. Thus, it would take 50 x 1.00 calorie to advanced 50g increase 1oC and also 100 x 50 x 1.00 = 5000 cal come raise the water come its boil point.

4. Cook water

just how much warm would be compelled to cook the 50g the water?

The latent heat for boiling water is 540 cal/g. That means that 1g that water calls for 540 cal of heat to boil.

Thus, 50g calls for 50 x 540 = 27000 cal come boil.

5. Heating steam

exactly how much warmth is forced to warm 50g of steam from 100oC to 110oC?

Since the details heat of heavy steam is 0.48 cal/g-oC, that method that 0.48 calorie are necessary to raise 1g up 1oC. Thus, it would certainly take 50 x 0.48 calorie to raise 50g of heavy steam 1oC and 10 x 50 x 0.48 = 240 cal come raise the temperature that the vapor to 110oC.

6. Total

The full heat compelled to readjust 50g of ice at -10oC to vapor at 110oC is:

250 + 4000 + 5000 + 27000 + 240 = 36490 cal.


Heating products like ice, water and heavy steam increases their temperature. The details heat that the material determines the calories forced to heat one unit of fixed one degree.

an altering the state the the product requires extra heat power that is not provided to adjust the temperature. The quantity of heat forced to readjust the state the the product is called its implicitly heat. The facility problem that determining exactly how much warmth is compelled to adjust ice right into water and also then change the water into steam should be broken into parts and solved individually.

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Heat up her thinking

Resources and references

Ron Kurtus" Credentials


Specific heat Equations - Wolfram scientific research World

Physics Resources


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Top-rated publications on thermal Energy


Top-rated publications on Physics the Temperature


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