define osmosis and diffusion. Distinguish amongst hypotonic, hypertonic, and also isotonic solutions. Describe a semipermeable membrane. Predict habits of blood cells in various solution types. Describe flow the solvent molecules across a membrane. Identify the polar and also nonpolar regions of a cabinet membrane. Explain the contents present in a phospholipid.

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Fish cells, favor all cells, have semipermeable membranes. Eventually, the concentration of "stuff" top top either next of castle will also out. A fish that stays in salt water will have actually somewhat salty water within itself. Placed it in freshwater, and also the freshwater will, with osmosis, enter the fish, leading to its cells to swell, and the fish will certainly die. What will take place to a freshwater fish in the ocean?


Imagine you have a cup that has (100 : extmL) water, and you add (15 : extg) the table street to the water. The sugar dissolves and also the mixture the is now in the cup is made up of a solute (the sugar) the is dissolved in the solvent (the water). The mixture of a solute in a solvent is dubbed a solution.

Imagine currently that you have actually a second cup with (100 : extmL) that water, and you add (45 : extg) that table sugar to the water. As with the very first cup, the street is the solute, and also the water is the solvent. But now you have two mixtures of various solute concentrations. In to compare two solutions of unlike solute concentration, the systems with the higher solute concentration is hypertonic, and also the solution with the reduced solute concentration is hypotonic. Services of equal solute concentration room isotonic. The an initial sugar solution is hypotonic come the 2nd solution. The second sugar systems is hypertonic to the first.

You now include the two services to a manufacturer that has actually been separated by a semipermeable membrane, through pores that are too small for the street molecules to pass through, however are big enough for the water molecule to pass through. The hypertonic solution is one one side of the membrane and the hypotonic equipment on the other. The hypertonic solution has actually a reduced water concentration than the hypotonic solution, therefore a concentration gradient of water currently exists throughout the membrane. Water molecules will relocate from the next of greater water concentration come the side of reduced concentration until both options are isotonic. In ~ this point, equilibrium is reached.

Red blood cell behave the same means (see figure below). Once red blood cells room in a hypertonic (higher concentration) solution, water flows the end of the cell faster than it comes in. This results in crenation (shriveling) the the blood cell. Top top the other extreme, a red blood cell that is hypotonic (lower concentration exterior the cell) will an outcome in an ext water flowing into the cell 보다 out. This results in ede of the cell and also potential hemolysis (bursting) that the cell. In one isotonic solution, the circulation of water in and out of the cabinet is happening in ~ the same rate.

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Figure (PageIndex2): Plasma membranes space primarily comprised of phospholipids (orange). The hydrophilic ("water-loving") head and two hydrophobic ("water-hating") tails are shown. The phospholipids form a double layer (two layers). The center of the double layer is one area without water. There can be water top top either side of the bilayer. Over there are countless proteins transparent the membrane.