Thomas A. Parker, PhDFormer president & EntomologistPest control Services, Inc.Kennett Square, Pennsylvania


As caretakers of an useful artifacts, artworks, photographs, manuscripts, and also other necessary materials, professionals in cultural heritage organizations should be mindful that the visibility of pests in collections have the right to seriously damage these materials. The condition of the structure “envelope” directly affects its structural integrity, the level to i beg your pardon pests have the right to infiltrate it, and also the as whole condition the the collection housed within.

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The term Integrated Pest monitoring (IPM) refers to pest control and prevention programs that depend on numerous simultaneous ideologies to attain the preferred result. In the past, discussions of incorporated Pest administration for libraries and archives have often focused on the disinfestation of well-known pest troubles in collections.

However, that is much more important, difficult, and time-consuming for employee to prevent pest infestation in buildings and collections. The hatchet Integrated Preventive Pest management (IPPM) better shows this understanding.

Eliminating currently infestations in collections is fairly easy, although countless methods deserve to be harmful to collections. A number of treatment approaches have been used, consisting of chemical methods, such together pesticide applications and also toxic gas fumigations; and also non-chemical treatments, such as freezing or heating the materials, the usage of micro-waves, gamma radiation, modified atmospheres, and also anoxic fumigation. No one desires a collection to be consumed by pest or rodent. That is equally essential to stop the chewing, residue deposition, defecation, and urination the may result from a range of pests inhabiting collection areas. This leaflet will existing the ideas of IPPM as well as how come safely respond as soon as infestations perform occur.

In managing destructive pests, one should think about various concerns that might contribute to pest infestation:

routes of pest entry right into the buildingconstruction anomalies the the structure itselfexhibit design and also constructionkinds that pests that might threaten particular collectionstypes and also numbers the pests found roughly or close to the exterior the the building

Also, think about policies and also procedures that can unwittingly present pests: warehouse practices and also equipment, maintenance, and housekeeping practices.

In countless ways, cultural heritage collection resemble an agricultural setting, where substantial quantities of foodstuffs are save on computer for long periods the time. Starches, cellulose, and also proteins discovered in collections provide food for various varieties of pests. Pest damages to collection is primarily caused by termites, bookworms, cockroaches, silverfish, booklice, carpet beetles, garments moths, rodents, birds, and also mold.

The first step is to determine what varieties of pests room coming into the building and damaging collections, and also then determine exactly how to store them native gaining accessibility to these at risk materials. Resolving existing problems and preventing brand-new ones requires the education and also cooperation of the entire staff.

The significant objectives of any kind of collections-based IPPM program need to be:

Create an IPPM committee come oversee every IPPM activities.Repair or modify the building envelope to discourage infiltration by pests, to keep a middle climate, and to avoid water and high family member humidity problems that might encourage pests.Devise and institute a thoroughly housekeeping regime in storage, exhibit, work, and also public areas.Ensure preventive pest actions are in place during major renovation or building and construction projects.Maintain a considerable pest-monitoring programProvide cultivate for employee to ensure the they understand the prestige of the program and also can help in the implementation.

The building exterior

Occasional Invaders

The starting point of any type of IPPM routine is to recognize which pests space a danger to the building and also its collections. Libraries and also archives endure pest pressures from the exterior, which might or may not have actually an result on the collections. Many insects, termed occasional invaders, just walk or fly right into the building. Occasional invaders include millipedes, sow bugs, earwigs, flies, wasps, bees, floor beetles, and night-flying moths. While no one of these insects is a direct threat to collections, carcasses of large-bodied insects might act together a food source for carpet beetle larvae and also mice. Carpet beetle adults seek out protein-based products on which to lay eggs. The larvae of this beetles might then devour materials on display or in storage. Dead insects are a major source the protein for mice.

Some beneficial manuscripts or publications are housed in protective crate lined with wool felt and carpet beetle larvae will certainly consume this kind of material. Various other food items favored through carpet beetle larvae space animal-based materials, such together wool, feathers, hair, felt, porcupine quills, whale baleen, wool-based embroidery, tapestries, insect and also mouse carcasses, and wool feeling exhibit case linings. Leather is typically not attacked and also silk is not a food source for carpet beetles. Vegetable-based materials, such as linen, burlap, and cotton, are not attacked. However, sizing in paper and towel may carry out a source of food.

Prevention that occasional intruders (as well together all pests) must be aimed at making the structure envelope together tight together possible. The most common routes of entry space via doors used by staff and garage doors. Seldom-used fire escape doors have the right to also enable such entry. Weather-stripping and also brush sweepers have to be set up on every doors to prevent entry of pests. Pipe penetrations with the exterior envelope that the building should it is in sealed v caulking or copper wool gauze. Exterior lighting affixed to a structure should it is in high-pressure, salt vapor form fixtures, which provide off tiny amounts the ultra-violet light and thus lure fewer night-flying and also crawling insects.


Pigeons, starlings, and also sparrows space the most common birds that nest and roost ~ above buildings. Dead birds, feathers, and other colony detritus may act as a food source for carpet beetle and webbing apparel moth infestations. Every effort should it is in made to get rid of nesting that birds. Mechanical procedures are most often used to deter bird roosting and nesting. A expert firm specializing in bird regulate may need to be consulted in order to bird-proof a building.


Mice living about a structure frequently probe the exterior at night, seeking a method to go into a building. Contrary to well-known belief, mice perform not gnaw their means into a building: they use openings in the building envelope. Mouse populations often develop up throughout the warmer months of the year and also invade structures in the fall. Sealing the building exterior is crucial to exclusion.


Subterranean and/or drywood termites may occasionally it is in encountered in a building. This kind of trouble should it is in left to a professional firm specializing in control and also prevention the termites. In selecting such a firm, the major question come ask the representative is even if it is the technicians that the firm are certified by their state for wood-destroying insects. Most states have actually such a certification program, which needs the separation, personal, instance to study and pass tests managing the suitable use that pesticides and also knowledge of certain pests. A firm that makes the effort to certify all of its technicians can usually be relied top top for top quality termite manage treatments.

the building interior


There are two types of cockroaches the may become a trouble in a library or similar institution. Two huge cockroaches, the American and Oriental cockroaches, can damage library materials by feeding on lock directly. Most commonly, American cockroaches graze on publication covers, photographs, and paper-based materials. They frequently congregate in daylight hours in quiet, dark places in the framework where lock emit a brown fluid, referred to as attar, top top the surface of materials. Attar has an aggregation pheromone in it, i m sorry attracts other cockroaches to their resting place. They space nocturnal and roam widely throughout the facility trying to find food sources and also opportunities for mating. They often enter structures via the sewer system and screening floor drains will avoid this immigration. ~ above occasion, egg cases of this cockroach may unwittingly be carried into a structure via cardboard boxes ~ above which the egg situations have to be glued by the female. A thorough glue-board monitoring regimen will alert employee to the visibility of this cockroaches. Granular baits may additionally be used for these big cockroaches. (Types of traps are characterized later in this leaflet.)

A smaller cockroach, the German cockroach, is usually linked with food managing kitchens and catering situations, vending areas, and bathrooms. It prefers to rest in cracks and also crannies. This cockroach is usually discovered near a water source and as such is not normally a threat to collections. It can quickly be controlled utilizing gelatin baits specifically designed for this species.


Silverfish can also pose a problem to the building and collections. Silverfish are nocturnal, wingless insects that hide in cracks and crevices throughout the day and also come the end at night to feeding on perfect paper, sizing, glue, and also wallpaper. Their name derives from your silvery scales and they prefer products high in strength content. Silverfish are normally found in cool, moist locations of a building. A cousin that the silverfish, the firebrat, is usually found in really hot areas of a building, such together a boiler room, and also is not a pest of collections. Silverfish have rather weak mouthparts and feed on materials by rasping the surface. The damage shows up to be lace-like, irregular job on the surface, only periodically rasping their means all the way through the material, leaving holes behind. Their feeding may encompass the sizing that silk or starched cloth. A glue-board routine will often carry out an effective means of control.

Psocids or Booklice

Booklice space tiny, wingless insects, which might occasionally be viewed scurrying throughout the page of a book. These insects perform not damages collections and are normally an indication of high humidity conditions. They feeding on microscope mold. Improving ecological controls may help in heavy infestations. A glue-board routine will typically suffice to limit populations.


Active infestations of bookworms in collection are quite rare in the united States. Bookworms space actually the larvae of details kinds of beetles that have the capacity to damage bound materials. The larvae of these beetles often feed on the glue of the binding and covers, leaving behind tunnels or galleries together they feed. Upon perfect of its life cycle, the adult beetle chews its method out that the book, leaving behind a small, ring hole. Energetic infestations will always be associated with piles of colored frass (excrement). The shade of the frass is typically the shade of the sheathe of the book. Old, dark exit holes there is no frass room an clues of an infestation that developed long ago and is not right now active. The most typical bookworm in the United says is the cigarette beetle. In Europe and the center East, the bookworm may actually it is in the furniture beetle. Infestations in the U.S. Are unwittingly carried into a social heritage company via incoming loan or acquisitions. Inspection of incoming materials is important for finding and also preventing infestations.

If an energetic infestation of bookworms is discovered, the materials deserve to be frozen and the infestation properly eliminated. If one infestation is found in created collections, consultation through a skilled may be required. In addition, a pheromone trapping program may be crucial for security existing collections and also pinpointing proceeding infestation.

Clothes Moths

Clothes moths, together with carpet beetles, are normally referred come as cloth pests. Two varieties of garments moths, the webbing garments moth and also the case-making garments moth, are typically found infesting protein-based materials. It is rare to encounter a apparel moth infestation in a library or archives, simply due to the fact that such institutions do not generally store or exhibit materials susceptible to garments moth attack. The many common apparel moth discovered in buildings in the U.S. Is the webbing apparel moth. The larvae of this moth feed on wool, feathers, fur, felt, taxidermy mounts, and other animal-based products. The adults do not have functional mouthparts and also therefore perform not damage materials. If a small, active infestation of webbing clothes moths is discovered, freeze the products is commonly the very first choice for disinfestation. Control and prevention of huge infestations must be left in the hands of a standard entomological consultant.


Mice ~ above the internal of a building may damages materials by chewing them because that nesting product or defecating and urinating top top them. The most common mouse discovered in buildings is the house mouse. This computer mouse is nocturnal, extremely territorial, and very curious—it will check anything new in the territory. Because of this tendency, snap trap and/or glue-boards can be offered to catch mice.

Rodent bait should not be offered in a cultural heritage organization. Rodent bait will generate carpet beetles in the bait itself. The bait may act as a food resource for various other insects, including huge cockroaches, and the toxicant in the bait will not kill insects. If a computer mouse dies native the impacts of the rodent bait, as soon as the carcass mummifies that may become a food source for carpet beetles and/or clothes moths. As such, mice should be trapped and removed native the building, no poisoned.


Bedbugs are progressively a concern for collecting institutions, not because of the damages they execute to the materials, but since they are a parasitic insect that feeds ~ above blood and also reproduces rapidly. Bedbug infestations can have an influence on human being health, bring about skin rashes and allergic reactions, no to point out the psychological impacts the infestation have the right to have top top staff and patrons.

If an energetic infestation that bedbugs is discovered in collection materials, the materials deserve to be frozen and the infestation effectively eliminated. Modified atmosphere treatments, especially those based on nitrogen, are also really effective because that bedbugs. If an infestation has been created in the building, consultation through a professional will it is in required.

in its entirety ippm strategies

To ensure an reliable program, an IPPM committee have to be developed to oversee every IPPM activities within the organization. These tasks include the all at once strategies, chemistry treatments, and also non-chemical treatments explained below. Members of every departments or locations should be contained on the IPPM committee, i m sorry supervises the repertoire of pest monitoring data and the implementation of particular control and prevention programs. Members the this team might include governmental staff, archivists, curators, librarians, paraprofessional staff, housekeeping and also maintenance staff, and also exhibit design staff.

It is finest to start a officially pest management program through an initial inspection of the building and also all arsenal storage areas. Have actually there been any type of pest troubles in the past? If so, what form of pest was involved and what materials were affected? What to be done to fix the problem? as soon as the committee understands the types of pests that can enter the building and possibly damage collection materials, the following step is to set up one IPPM program to resolve the established needs.

The building Exterior

Make the framework uninviting because that roosting and also nesting that birds, rodents, cockroaches, and other vermin, and make the framework as tight as possible to protect against infiltration by insects, rodents, and also birds. Seal windows and doors tightly—weather-stripping might be necessary. Execute not on regular basis prop open up doors. Seal openings approximately pipes and also cracks in the walls or foundation. Display vents to save out birds and rodents. Design and also install exterior lighting so that it will certainly not it is in attractive come night-flying insects. Repair, modify, and also install guttering top top the framework to prevent damages from rot and insects led to by water problems, and to lessen the humidity the the interior, approximately air. Keep a planting-free ar of around 12 inches about buildings come discourage insects from entering. In addition, plantings have to be correctly cared for and not end watered. The area around foundations must be graveled and graded away from a structure to prevent basement flooding.

In the occasion that a pest infiltration go occur, it may likewise be vital to modify existing elements of the structure to avoid pest infestation from dispersing throughout the facility

The structure Interior


Climate need to be moderate, and also conditions have to be cool and also dry; specifics rely on the demands of different materials. Because that pest control, temperature should be 68°F or lower, and relative humidity need to be kept below a preferably of 70%; however, maintaining climate problems recommended for the preservation of publications and paper will assist to control insect populations. For more information on climate, above the ptcouncil.net Leaflet 2.1 Temperature, family member Humidity, Light, and Air Quality: basic Guidelines for Preservation.


Pipes in collection areas and other resources of water such as restrooms, kitchens, or climate-control tools should it is in inspected routinely to guard against water leakage. Wrap sweat pipes with insulating tape. Close off unused drains or drainpipe openings. Roofs and basements should be inspected periodically come ensure the there is no was standing water or flooding. Where and also when difficulties recur, constant inspections need to be implemented.


Limit the variety of live plants and cut flower in the building. If this is impossible, plants have to be well cared for and kept to a minimum; flowering tree should absolutely be avoided. Avoid over watering and also watch plants closely for indications of infestation or disease.

Food consumption should be confined come a employee lounge or, if food is permitted throughout the building, garbage must be cleared daily. If functions including refreshments are hosted in various other spaces, seal every leftovers strictly or ensure the they are eliminated by the caterers. Vacuuming and kitchen cleanup should be carry out immediately. Store all food in strictly sealed glass or metal containers or in the refrigerator, and carry out a plastic garbage can with a tight-fitting lid because that food waste. Trash should be eliminated from the structure daily.


Devise and also institute a thorough housekeeping program, emphasizing regime vacuuming of vulnerable exhibits, storage areas, windy areas, and also other rooms. In addition, collection storage locations (and other areas) have to be cleaned completely at the very least every six months. All locations should be confirm for indicators of pests at the very least once a month. Look because that stains and signs that insect grazing (small feet in paper, or areas of lose on the surface ar of record or bindings). Inspect windowsills, under bookcases and radiators, on and also behind shelves, and inside boxes and drawers for signs of insect activity. Look at for tiny piles the dust, insect bodies, frass (insect droppings), egg cases, and also live insects; clean up any kind of insect debris immediately.


It is an especially important to develop strict measures for handling newly got collections, together collections regularly will have actually been formerly stored in attics or basements hospitable come pests.

Examine just arrive material instantly to see if there is proof of infestation. Job-related over a clean surface spanned with blotter or other light paper. Eliminate all objects from warehouse or shipping enclosures and look in ~ the binding, pages, and also hollow (if any) in books. Examine frame backings and also mats, wrappings, and also other accompanying materials. Look for live creatures, insect droppings, larvae, or insect bodies.

Transfer materials to clean archival boxes until you can procedure them. If possible, isolate re-housed, incoming products in a room away from various other collections till processing. An are that will carry out preservation problems is cool, dry, clean, and outfitted through shelving to discourage mold and insects. (Shelving allows air circulation and also keeps items off of the floor.) throw the old crate away unless they are archival quality and also you space absolutely particular they room clean.

The clean archival boxes can be used repeatedly for this short-lived holding usage as lengthy as the contents and also boxes continue free of proof of insects. Ideally, of course, incoming product should it is in processed and also re-housed in its long-term enclosures promptly. Realistically, processing may be delayed, and also the inner of boxes need to be inspected frequently at least every couple of weeks. A time or motel-type sticky trap have the right to be put on a sidewall within each crate to boost monitoring.If there is evidence of insects, talk to a preservation expert for in-depth advice before proceeding. Materials can be vacuumed completely (assuming the objects room not deteriorated or fragile) through a nylon or various other soft screen, making use of a high-filtration vacuum. Discard both filter and disposable bag outside of the building or in a sealed container that is noted for food wastes and also is cleared daily.


Once the building envelope has been sealed, reliable pest monitoring on the inner requires the regime use that a trapping program. Install non-chemical traps because that rodents and also insects on the interior, in situation pests slip previous the exterior defenses. The most common method is to employ the usage of sticky traps, likewise called blunder traps or glue-boards, i m sorry are available from a range of advertisement manufacturers. Cardboard glue-boards, i beg your pardon sit flat on the floor, must be used. Tray-type glue-boards need to not be used, since insects will merely travel roughly the glue-board and not be captured in it. In undisturbed areas, the traps deserve to be laid level on the floor in quiet areas and also corners the rooms and closets. In publicly areas, folded, tent-like traps deserve to be used. The direction of travel can be ascertained by noting where an insect is captured on the trap.

Records of trap placements in the building should be kept, in addition to details of what has been trapped. Initially the record of trap captures should be retained weekly. Eventually they have the right to be recorded on a monthly basis. Traps need to be replaced if they are no longer sticky or if big insects or mice room trapped. If out insects space being trapped, this need to alert employee to the truth that a door or window is allowing ingress. If arsenal pests room being trapped, a more intensive trapping program have to be describe in the prompt area in order come pinpoint the source of the infestation. The insects being trapped can be sent out to a local farming extension agent for identification. Appropriate identification is necessary to recognize if the trapped insects room a direct threat to collections. Number of of the resources provided at the finish of this leaflet deserve to be provided for identification of insect pests affect collections.

The simple procedure for surveillance using trap is together follows:

Identify every doors, windows, water and heat sources, and also furniture ~ above a building floor plan.Identify most likely insect routes, and also mark trap areas on a floor plan.Number and date the traps.Place the traps in the area to it is in monitored, as indicated on the floor plan.Inspect and also collect the catch regularly.Refine catch placement and also inspection as necessary, according to the evidence collected.

All staff members must be educated as to the prominence of the IPPM program and also be encouraged to submit samples the insects found throughout the basic to the IPPM committee. In time, through the glue-board surveillance program and insect submissions, the committee will become familiar v the varieties of pests encountered in the building and also the dynamics the the populations. Effective, irreversible corrective actions deserve to then be taken to avoid pests indigenous entering the structure and also infesting the building and collections.


Conventional insect Control

An incorporated Preventive Pest administration program will rarely require the use of traditional pesticide applications in a cultural heritage organization. If a expert pest manage firm is under contract come an institution, the technician will commonly spray pesticides around the perimeter of miscellaneous rooms. This strategy may be reliable for only two varieties of hefty infestations: silverfish and also booklice. Usually infestations of this two varieties of insects do not require recurring pesticide applications. In a heavy infestation, one initial application of a micro-encapsulated insecticide will suffice, followed by the established monitoring program. Fogging the pesticides have to never be used in a collections institution. Instead, the pest control technician should emphasis on the food handling and also vending areas, using bait applications fairly than spraying. The remainder of the basic can generally be kept fairly pest cost-free through the IPPM monitoring program and also thorough cleaning and vacuuming by the housekeeping staff.

Toxic Fumigants

In the past, some of the most toxic gases in the human being have been supplied to fumigate social heritage materials. Fumigants as methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, and also Vikane have actually been supplied for disinfestation that infested materials. Today, over there is never any reason because that the social heritage ar to make use of such dangerous chemistry to escape a arsenal of insect pests. Non-chemical methods deserve to be employed when an infestation of collections is discovered.

In addition, routine fumigation of incoming products is unwarranted and also dangerous. Not just is there a opportunity the products themselves will be adversely affected, but likewise the off-gassing of the fumigant is a direct threat come the wellness of staff and also the structure environment.



Most paper-based materials can be frozen to effectively eliminate all stages that the insect’s life. Researches have presented that freezing materials does no adversely influence them, v some exceptions. Fantastic reference is the pioneer occupational on freezing composed by Mary-Lou E. Florian and also subsequent job-related by cutting board J. K. Strang. Really delicate or friable materials, or those do of combined materials, normally should no be frozen. In practice, materials that one could hesitate come freeze would certainly be objects through inlays and also wooden composites. A conservator with comprehensive experience in freezing every manner the materials and also objects must be consulted prior to proceeding.

Commonly, a family or commercial freezer is offered for this process. The materials are inserted in a sealed, polyethylene bag and held at room temperature. They room then quickly placed in the freezer. Treatment must be given not to fill the freezer tightly. The freezer have to be capable of getting to 0?C (32?F) within 4 hours, and continue to plummet come -20?F. Most chest-type, family members freezers qualify for these parameters. The products are hosted in the freezer because that a period of 72 hours and also then removed. They should be permitted to heat to room temperature (while still in the bag), and also then eliminated from the bag, cleaned, and also labeled in part manner v information concerning the procedure and the reasons for freeze the materials. The is an excellent practice to incorporate this information in official collection records as well. Because that the varieties of insects commonly encountered in collection materials, a single progression with the above procedure is typically sufficient.

In situations where a big incoming delivery of repertoire materials has actually been inspected and also found to have an infestation (such as bookworms), the entire shipment may need to be quarantined, boxed, palletized, shrink-wrapped, and sent off to a commercial warehouse for frozen foods items or a commercial freezing operation. A commercial freezing operation usually maintains a consistent temperature the 0?F. The materials will have to be exposed for one week since the temperature never ever reaches the forced -20?F. If the freeze unit is a vacuum frozen dryer, 72-hours will certainly be enough for reliable disinfestation. However, freezing imparts no residual services to the materials; they will certainly still be breakable to succeeding attack.

Modified Atmospheres

This term describes fumigation with miscellaneous inert gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, or a combination of several of these, because that insect control. In bespeak to use these methods, a gas-tight structure, fumigation bubble, or low-permeability plastic bag should be supplied in order come maintain specific levels the the gases important for full insect kill. The waiting is attracted out the the airtight confinement container. Nitrogen, often in mix with carbon dioxide, is then pumped right into the container. End a duration of 3 weeks, the nitrogen/carbon dioxide levels are very closely monitored and also maintained. After exposure, the products are aerated before being brought back into the facility. Dedicated monitoring and application devices is essential for these types of anoxic fumigations. Most libraries and also archives space not fitted to carry out these species of procedures and professional help will it is in required.


All stages of an insect’s life have the right to be properly killed by heating products to 130?F for a duration of 3 hours. In most instances, this kind of disinfestation of collections is no recommended for cultural heritage materials. Temperatures vital for insect eradication accelerate file aging and also oxidation, and materials can become brittle and also otherwise damaged. Microwave heating should be totally avoided. This procedure is uncontrollable and will result in damages to covers and pages through the opportunity of scorching or igniting them.

Gamma Radiation

Gamma radiation is provided to sterilize cosmetics, food and farming products, medical supplies, and hospital and also laboratory equipment. Research has displayed that gamma radiation may initiate oxidation and also cause scission that cellulose molecules; it has actually the potential to seriously damage paper-based materials. There is also a cumulative effect from repetitive exposures. Given these factors, gamma radiation is no recommended.


The numerous varying hazards from pests do it advisable for cultural heritage establishments to build an incorporated Preventive Pest management program for your buildings and also collections. This initiative should be imposed with the full collaboration of employee under the direction of an IPPM committee.

An efficient monitoring routine will identify what pests are present and also how they room entering the facility, and also will offer insight for the advance of a preventive program target at selected insect problems. Non-chemical techniques of pest prevention deserve to be implemented in-house to effectively and also safely protect against infestations. Chemistry treatments must be avoided if at every possible. The emphasis of any IPPM program have to be on avoiding pest problems before they arise.

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Connecting to collection CareIdentifying Museum Insect pest Damage and Addressing the with incorporated Pest Management (webinar)https://www.connectingtocollections.org/webinar-pest-management/

Council the Library and Information sources (CLIR) and also Cornell UniversityLibrary Preservation and Conservation Tutorial: insect Control https://chinapreservationtutorial.library.cornell.edu/content/pest-control

Mary-Lou Florian“Freezing because that Museum Insect insect Eradication”Collection Forum, spring 1990http://www.spnhc.org/media/assets/cofo_1990_V6N1.pdf

Integrated Pest management Working GroupWebsite extending prevention, monitoring, identification, and also expert advice. Http://museumpests.net

National Park Service

Conserve-O-Grams: series 3: Agents that Deteriorationhttps://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/cons_toc.html#collectionpreservation

NPS Museum Handbook, part I (2014): chapter 5, biological Infestations.https://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/MHI/CHAP5.pdf

ptcouncil.net conservation Leaflets2.1 Temperature, relative Humidity, Light, and Air Quality: an easy Guidelines because that Preservationhttps://www.ptcouncil.net/free-resources/preservation-leaflets/2.-the-environment/2.1-temperature,-relative-humidity,-light,-and-air-quality-basic-guidelines-for-preservation

Thomas J. K. Strang“A evaluation of released Temperatures for the regulate of insect Insects in Museums”Collection Forum, loss 1992United says Department the AgricultureCooperative expansion Servicehttps://nifa.usda.gov/cooperative-extension-system

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