Thomas A. Parker, PhDFormer President & EntomologistPest Control Services, Inc.Kennett Square, Pennsylvania
As caretakers of valuable artefacts, artfunctions, photographs, manuscripts, and various other necessary materials, professionals in cultural heritage establishments need to be mindful that the visibility of pests in collections can seriously damages these materials. The problem of the structure “envelope” directly affects its structural integrity, the degree to which pests have the right to infiltprice it, and the overall condition of the collections housed within.
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The term Incorporated Pest Management (IPM) refers to pest regulate and also prevention programs that depend on numerous simultaneous approaches to acquire the desired result. In the past, discussions of Incorporated Pest Management for libraries and also archives have actually regularly concentrated on the disinfestation of well-known pest problems in collections.
However, it is much even more vital, hard, and also time-consuming for staff to prevent pest infeterminal in buildings and also collections. The term Combined Preventive Pest Management (IPPM) better mirrors this understanding.
Eliminating existing infestations in collections is fairly simple, although many methods have the right to be harmful to collections. A number of treatment approaches have actually been provided, including chemical methods, such as pesticide applications and also toxic gas fumigations; and non-chemical treatments, such as freezing or heating the materials, the use of micro-waves, gamma radiation, modified settings, and anoxic fumigation. No one desires a repertoire to be consumed by an insect or rodent. It is equally necessary to prevent the chewing, residue deplace, defecation, and also urination that might result from a variety of pests inhabiting collection locations. This leaflet will certainly present the principles of IPPM as well as exactly how to safely respond once infestations do take place.
In managing damaging pests, one should think about various worries that can contribute to pest infestation:courses of pest entry into the buildingbuilding and construction anomalies of the structure itselfexhilittle bit architecture and also constructionkinds of pests that can thrconsumed particular collectionstypes and also numbers of pests discovered roughly or close to the exterior of the building
Also, consider policies and actions that could unwittingly present pests: storage practices and also tools, maintenance, and housemaintaining methods.
In many kind of means, cultural heritage collections resemble an agricultural establishing, where expensive amounts of foodstuffs are stored for lengthy periods of time. Starches, cellulose, and also proteins discovered in collections provide food for miscellaneous forms of pests. Pest damages to collections is generally led to by termites, bookworms, cockroaches, silverfish, booklice, carpet beetles, apparel moths, rodents, birds, and mold.
The first action is to identify what types of pests are coming into the building and damaging collections, and also then identify just how to store them from gaining accessibility to these at risk materials. Solving existing problems and staying clear of new ones involves the education and learning and participation of the whole staff.
The significant missions of any type of collections-based IPPM program should be:Create an IPPM committee to overwatch all IPPM tasks.Repair or modify the building envelope to discourage infiltration by pests, to preserve a modeprice climate, and also to proccasion water and high relative humidity troubles that may encourage pests.Devise and also institute a thounstable housekeeping regime in storage, exhibit, work, and public locations.Encertain preventative pest actions are in place in the time of significant renovation or building tasks.Maintain a comprehensive pest-monitoring programProvide training for staff to encertain that they understand also the importance of the routine and have the right to help in its implementation.
The building exterior
The founding point of any kind of IPPM regimen is to identify which pests are a danger to the building and its collections. Libraries and archives suffer pest pressures from the exterior, which might or might not have an effect on the collections. Many kind of insects, termed occasional intruders, sindicate walk or fly right into the structure. Occasional intruders include millipedes, sow bugs, earwigs, flies, wasps, bees, ground beetles, and also night-flying moths. While none of these insects is a direct danger to collections, carcasses of large-bodied insects might act as a food source for carpet beetle larvae and mice. Carpet beetle adults seek out protein-based products on which to lay eggs. The larvae of these beetles might then devour products on display screen or in storage. Dead insects are a major resource of protein for mice.
Some practical manuscripts or books are housed in protective boxes lined via wool felt and carpet beetle larvae will certainly consume this kind of product. Other food items favored by carpet beetle larvae are animal-based materials, such as wool, feathers, hair, felt, porcupine quills, whale baleen, wool-based embroidery, tapestries, insect and computer mouse carcasses, and wool felt exhilittle case linings. Leather is primarily not attacked and silk is not a food source for carpet beetles. Vegetable-based materials, such as linen, burlap, and cotton, are not struck. However, sizing in paper and cloth may administer a source of food.
Prevention of occasional intruders (and also all pests) must be aimed at making the building envelope as tight as feasible. The many widespread paths of entry are through doors used by staff and also garage doors. Seldom-used fire escape doors deserve to also enable such enattempt. Weather-stripping and also brush sweepers must be installed on all doors to proccasion enattempt of pests. Pipe penetrations with the exterior envelope of the structure should be sealed via caulking or copper wool gauze. Exterior lighting affixed to a structure should be high-push, sodium vapor kind fixtures, which provide off tiny amounts of ultra-violet light and also therefore attract fewer night-flying and also crawling insects.
Pigeons, starlings, and sparrows are the many common birds that nest and roost on buildings. Dead birds, feathers, and also various other colony detritus may act as a food resource for carpet beetle and webbing garments moth infestations. Eextremely initiative must be made to eliminate nesting of birds. Mechanical procedures are the majority of frequently offered to deter bird roosting and nesting. A expert firm specializing in bird manage may need to be consulted in order to bird-proof a structure.
Mice living about a framework often probe the exterior at night, seeking a means to enter a structure. Contrary to famous belief, mice perform not gnaw their means into a building: they utilize openings in the structure envelope. Mouse populations often develop up during the warmer months of the year and also invade structures in the autumn. Sealing the structure exterior is critical to exemption.
Subterranean and/or drylumber termites may periodically be encountered in a building. This form of problem should be left to a expert firm specializing in manage and prevention of termites. In picking such a firm, the primary question to ask the representative is whether the technicians of the firm are certified by their state for wood-destroying insects. Many states have actually such a certification routine, which calls for the individual to study and also pass tests managing the proper use of pesticides and also understanding of particular pests. A firm that makes the effort to certify every one of its technicians have the right to normally be relied upon for high quality termite regulate therapies.
the building interior
Tbelow are two kinds of cockroaches that may become a difficulty in a library or similar school. Two huge cockroaches, the Amerihave the right to and Asian cockroaches, have the right to damages library products by feeding on them directly. Most generally, American cockroaches graze on book covers, photographs, and also paper-based products. They regularly congregate in daylight hours in quiet, dark areas in the structure wright here they emit a brown fluid, dubbed attar, onto the surencounters of materials. Attar has an aggregation pheromone in it, which attracts various other cockroaches to their resting place. They are nocturnal and also roam widely throughout the facility trying to find food resources and also opportunities for mating. They regularly enter buildings through the sewage system system and screening floor drains will certainly prevent this immigration. On occasion, egg instances of this cockroach might unwittingly be carried right into a building using cardboard boxes onto which the egg cases have actually been glued by the female. A thostormy glue-board surveillance routine will certainly alert staff to the presence of these cockroaches. Granular baits may likewise be offered for these big cockroaches. (Types of traps are characterized later on in this leaflet.)
A smaller sized cockroach, the Gerguy cockroach, is usually connected through food dealing with kitchens and catering instances, vfinishing locations, and commodes. It pdescribes remainder in cracks and crannies. This cockroach is usually uncovered near a water resource and therefore is not generally a danger to collections. It have the right to conveniently be controlled using gel baits particularly designed for this species.
Silverfish have the right to also pose a trouble to the building and also collections. Silverfish are nocturnal, wingless insects that hide in cracks and crevices during the day and also come out at night to feed on finiburned paper, sizing, glue, and wallpaper. Their name derives from their silextremely scales and also they prefer products high in starch content. Silverfish are normally uncovered in cool, moist locations of a structure. A cousin of the silverfish, the firebrat, is commonly discovered in incredibly hot locations of a building, such as a boiler room, and also is not a pest of collections. Silverfish have fairly weak mouthcomponents and feed on products by rasping the surchallenge. The damages appears to be lace-favor, ircontinual patches on the surchallenge, only sometimes rasping their way all the method with the material, leaving holes behind. Their feeding may encompass the sizing of silk or starched towel. A glue-board program will certainly frequently administer an efficient suggests of manage.
Psocids or Booklice
Booklice are tiny, wingless insects, which might sometimes be checked out scurrying throughout the page of a book. These insects execute not damages collections and also are usually an indication of high humidity conditions. They feed on microscopic mold. Improving ecological controls might help in hefty infestations. A glue-board program will certainly normally suffice to limit populations.
Active infestations of bookworms in collections are quite rare in the USA. Bookworms are actually the larvae of certain kinds of beetles that have the capacity to damages bound materials. The larvae of these beetles regularly feed on the glue of the binding and covers, leaving behind tunnels or galleries as they feed. Upon completion of its life cycle, the adult beetle chews its way out of the book, leaving behind a tiny, round hole. Active infestations will certainly always be linked with piles of colored frass (excrement). The color of the frass is generally the color of the cover of the book. Old, dark departure holes without frass are an indication of an infeterminal that emerged lengthy earlier and is not presently energetic. The most widespread bookworm in the USA is the cigarette beetle. In Europe and the Center East, the bookworm might actually be the furniture beetle. Infestations in the U.S. are unwittingly carried into a social heritage organization using incoming loans or acquisitions. Inspection of incoming materials is crucial for finding and also preventing infestations.
If an active infestation of bookworms is found, the materials can be frozen and the infeterminal effectively removed. If an infestation is uncovered in establimelted collections, consultation with a skilled might be required. In enhancement, a pheromone trapping program might be important for monitoring existing collections and also pinpointing continuing infestation.
Clothes moths, in addition to carpet beetles, are mainly referred to as cloth pests. Two forms of garments moths, the webbing clothing moth and also the case-making apparel moth, are frequently found infesting protein-based products. It is rare to enrespond to a apparel moth infeterminal in a library or archives, ssuggest because such establishments perform not typically store or exhibit materials vulnerable to apparel moth assault. The most common clothes moth uncovered in structures in the U.S. is the webbing clothing moth. The larvae of this moth feed on wool, feathers, hair, felt, taxidermy mounts, and other animal-based assets. The adults do not have useful mouthcomponents and therefore perform not damages materials. If a small, active infestation of webbing clothes moths is discovered, freezing the products is usually the initially alternative for disinfestation. Control and prevention of large infestations should be left in the hands of a qualified entomological consultant.
Mice on the interior of a building might damage products by chewing them for nesting product or defecating and also urinating on them. The the majority of prevalent computer mouse discovered in buildings is the home mouse. This mouse is nocturnal, very territorial, and very curious—it will certainly check anything new in its region. Therefore tendency, snap traps and/or glue-boards deserve to be supplied to trap mice.
Rodent bait have to not be offered in a social heritage company. Rodent bait will certainly generate carpet beetles in the bait itself. The bait might act as a food source for various other insects, including huge cockroaches, and the toxicant in the bait will not kill insects. If a computer mouse dies from the results of the rodent bait, once the carcass mummifies it might come to be a food resource for carpet beetles and/or clothes moths. Thus, mice need to be trapped and also rerelocated from the building, not poisoned.
Bedbugs are increasingly a worry for collecting organizations, not because of the damage they perform to the products, yet bereason they are a parasitic insect that feeds on blood and reproduces rapidly. Bedbug infestations deserve to have an affect on huguy health, resulting in skin rashes and allergic reactions, not to mention the emotional results the infestation have the right to have actually on staff and also patrons.
If an energetic infestation of bedbugs is found in arsenal products, the materials deserve to be frozen and also the infeterminal effectively eliminated. Modified atmosphere therapies, particularly those based upon nitrogen, are also extremely efficient for bedbugs. If an infestation has been establimelted in the building, consultation with a skilled will certainly be required.
in its entirety ippm strategies
To ensure an reliable regimen, an IPPM committee must be produced to overcheck out all IPPM activities within the company. These tasks incorporate the all at once methods, chemical treatments, and non-chemical treatments defined listed below. Members of all departments or locations must be contained on the IPPM committee, which supervises the arsenal of pest surveillance data and the implementation of specific control and prevention programs. Members of this team might encompass administrative staff, archivists, curators, librarians, paraexperienced staff, housekeeping and also maintenance staff, and exhibit design staff.
It is finest to start a formal pest monitoring regimen with an initial survey of the structure and also all arsenal storage areas. Have tright here been any type of pest problems in the past? If so, what type of pest was affiliated and what materials were affected? What was done to resolve the problem? Once the committee understands the types of pests that could enter the building and maybe damages collection products, the following action is to erected an IPPM regime to deal with the established requirements.
The Building Exterior
Make the framework uninviting for roosting and nesting of birds, rodents, cockroaches, and also other vermin, and also make the structure as tight as feasible to prevent infiltration by insects, rodents, and birds. Seal home windows and doors tightly—weather-stripping may be important. Do not consistently prop open doors. Seal openings approximately pipes and also cracks in the wall surfaces or foundation. Screen vents to keep out birds and also rodents. Deauthorize and also install exterior lighting so that it will not be attrenergetic to night-flying insects. Repair, modify, and also install guttering on the framework to prevent damage from rot and insects led to by water problems, and to lessen the humidity of the internal, ambient air. Maintain a planting-cost-free zone of about 12 inches approximately buildings to discourage insects from entering. In addition, plantings must be effectively cared for and also not over watered. The area approximately structures need to be graveled and graded amethod from a structure to prevent basement flooding.
In the occasion that a pest infiltration does happen, it may also be crucial to modify existing elements of the structure to prevent pest infeterminal from spanalysis throughout the facility
The Building InteriorCLIMATE
Climate should be modeprice, and also conditions must be cool and dry; specifics depend on the demands of different materials. For pest manage, temperature have to be 68°F or lower, and also loved one humidity should be preserved listed below a maximum of 70%; yet, maintaining climate conditions recommended for the conservation of books and paper will certainly aid to control insect populaces. For even more information on climate, consult the ptcouncil.net Leaflet 2.1 Temperature, Relative Humidity, Light, and Air Quality: Basic Guidelines for Preservation.WATER SOURCES
Pipes in collections areas and also various other resources of water such as restrooms, kitchens, or climate-regulate tools must be inspected frequently to guard versus water leakage. Wrap sweating pipes through insulating tape. Cshed off unoffered drains or drainpipe openings. Roofs and also basements should be inspected periodically to ensure that tbelow is no standing water or flooding. Where and also as soon as difficulties recur, constant inspections have to be implemented.FOOD SOURCES
Limit the variety of live plants and also cut flowers in the structure. If this is impossible, plants need to be well cared for and also maintained to a minimum; flowering plants have to certainly be avoided. Avoid over watering and watch plants carefully for signs of infeterminal or illness.
Food usage have to be confined to a staff lounge or, if food is permitted throughout the structure, garbage must be emptied day-to-day. If functions consisting of refreshments are held in other spaces, seal all leftovers tightly or encertain that they are removed by the caterers. Vacuuming and also kitchen cleanup need to be performed automatically. Store all food in tightly sealed glass or metal containers or in the refrigerator, and administer a plastic garbage can with a tight-fitting lid for food waste. Trash have to be removed from the building day-to-day.HOUSEKEEPING
Devise and also institute a thostormy housemaintaining regimen, emphasizing regimen vacuuming of prone exhibits, storage areas, public areas, and also other rooms. In addition, arsenal storage locations (and various other areas) have to be cleaned thoaround at leastern eincredibly six months. All locations have to be checked for signs of pests at leastern when a month. Look for stains and also indications of insect grazing (small holes in paper, or areas of loss on the surface of paper or bindings). Check windowsills, under bookinstances and also radiators, on and also behind shelves, and also inside boxes and drawers for indications of insect task. Look for little piles of dust, insect bodies, frass (insect droppings), egg cases, and also live insects; clean up any type of insect debris immediately.INCOMING COLLECTIONS
It is particularly essential to develop strict actions for handling recently acquired collections, as collections frequently will have been formerly stored in attics or basements hospitable to pests.
Examine incoming product instantly to check out if there is evidence of infestation. Work over a clean surconfront extended through blotter or other light paper. Rerelocate all objects from storage or shipping enclosures and look at the binding, pages, and hollow (if any) in books. Examine frame backings and mats, wrappings, and also other accompanying products. Look for live creatures, insect droppings, larvae, or insect bodies.
Transfer products to clean archival boxes until you deserve to process them. If possible, isolate re-hooffered, incoming materials in a space away from various other collections until processing. Void that will certainly carry out preservation problems is cool, dry, clean, and outfitted via shelving to discourage mold and insects. (Shelving allows air circulation and keeps items off of the floor.) Throw the old boxes amethod unless they are archival top quality and you are absolutely specific they are clean.
The clean archival boxes can be supplied consistently for this temporary holding use as lengthy as the contents and boxes continue free of proof of insects. Ideally, of course, incoming product need to be processed and also re-hosupplied in its permanent enclosures promptly. Realistically, handling might be delayed, and the inner of boxes should be inspected routinely at least eincredibly few weeks. A tent or motel-kind sticky trap can be put on a sidewall inside each box to enhance surveillance.If there is evidence of insects, talk to a conservation expert for detailed advice before proceeding. Materials can be vacuumed thoroughly (assuming the objects are not deteriorated or fragile) through a nylon or other soft display, using a high-filtration vacuum. Discard both filter and also disposable bag exterior of the building or in a sealed container that is provided for food wastes and is emptied everyday.
Once the building envelope has been sealed, efficient pest monitoring on the interior calls for the regime use of a trapping regimen. Install non-chemical traps for rodents and also insects on the inner, in situation pests slip past the exterior defenses. The the majority of prevalent strategy is to employ the use of sticky traps, likewise called blunder traps or glue-boards, which are obtainable from a range of commercial manufacturers. Cardboard glue-boards, which sit level on the floor, have to be offered. Tray-form glue-boards should not be provided, bereason insects will simply travel approximately the glue-board and also not be recorded in it. In undisturbed locations, the traps have the right to be lhelp level on the floor in quiet locations and corners of rooms and closets. In public locations, folded, tent-choose traps can be supplied. The direction of take a trip can be ascertained by noting wright here a pest is recorded on the trap.
Records of trap placements in the building must be retained, in addition to details of what has been trapped. Originally the recording of trap catches have to be retained weekly. Eventually they have the right to be taped on a monthly basis. Traps have to be reput if they are no longer sticky or if big insects or mice are trapped. If outdoor insects are being trapped, this have to alert staff to the fact that a door or home window is enabling ingress. If arsenal pests are being trapped, a more intensive trapping regimen have to be instituted in the instant location in order to pinsuggest the resource of the infeterminal. The insects being trapped deserve to be sent to a neighborhood farming extension agent for identification. Suitable identification is crucial to identify if the trapped insects are a direct danger to collections. Several of the sources noted at the end of this leaflet have the right to be supplied for identification of insect pests affecting collections.
The basic procedure for surveillance making use of traps is as follows:Identify all doors, home windows, water and also warmth resources, and furniture on a structure floor plan.Identify most likely insect routes, and note trap locations on a floor arrangement.Number and also day the traps.Place the traps in the location to be monitored, as indicated on the floor setup.Inspect and also collect the traps regularly.Refine trap placement and inspection as crucial, according to the evidence gathered.
All staff members should be educated as to the prominence of the IPPM regime and be encouraged to submit samples of insects uncovered throughout the facility to the IPPM committee. In time, with the glue-board surveillance regimen and also insect submissions, the committee will certainly end up being acquainted with the kinds of pests encountered in the building and also the dynamics of the populations. Effective, long-term corrective actions have the right to then be taken to prevent pests from entering the framework and also infesting the structure and also collections.
TREATMENT METHODS: CHEMICAL TREATMENTS
Conventional Pest Control
An Combined Preventive Pest Management program will certainly rarely call for the usage of typical pesticide applications in a cultural heritage company. If a expert pest control firm is under contract to an institution, the technician will frequently spray pesticides roughly the perimeter of miscellaneous rooms. This approach might be effective for only 2 types of heavy infestations: silverfish and also booklice. Typically infestations of these 2 forms of insects perform not require recurring pesticide applications. In a heavy infeterminal, an initial application of a micro-encapsulated insecticide will certainly suffice, followed by the established surveillance program. Fogging of pesticides must never before be used in a collections institution. Instead, the pest control technician should emphasis on the food handling and also vending locations, utilizing bait applications rather than spraying. The remainder of the facility have the right to normally be maintained fairly pest totally free through the IPPM security regimen and thoturbulent cleaning and also vacuuming by the housemaintaining staff.
In the past, some of the the majority of toxic gases in the people have been provided to fumigate social heritage products. Fumigants as methyl bromide, ethylene oxide, and also Vikane have been used for disinfeterminal of infested materials. Today, tright here is never any type of factor for the social heritage area to utilize such dangerous chemicals to rid a repertoire of insect pests. Non-chemical techniques have the right to be employed when an infestation of collections is found.
In addition, regimen fumigation of incoming materials is unwarranted and dangerous. Not only is tright here a possibility the products themselves will be adversely affected, however also the off-gassing of the fumigant is a straight risk to the health and wellness of staff and the building setting.
TREATMENT METHODS: NON-CHEMICAL TREATMENTS
Many paper-based products can be frozen to efficiently remove all steras of the insect’s life. Studies have actually shown that freezing products does not adversely affect them, via some exceptions. An fantastic referral is the pioneer work on freezing created by Mary-Lou E. Florian and subsequent occupational by Thomas J. K. Strang. Very delicate or friable materials, or those made of combined materials, generally need to not be frozen. In practice, products that one could hesitate to freeze would be objects through inlays and also wooden composites. A conservator via considerable experience in freezing all manner of products and objects need to be consulted prior to proceeding.
Commonly, a family or commercial freezer is offered for this process. The materials are inserted in a sealed, polyethylene bag and also hosted at room temperature. They are then quickly put in the freezer. Care have to be given not to pack the freezer tightly. The freezer have to be qualified of reaching 0?C (32?F) within 4 hrs, and also proceed to plummet to -20?F. Most chest-form, family freezers qualify for these parameters. The products are hosted in the freezer for a duration of 72 hours and also then removed. They should be enabled to heat to room temperature (while still in the bag), and also then rerelocated from the bag, cleaned, and also labeled in some manner with indevelopment concerning the procedure and also the factors for freezing the materials. It is great practice to incorporate this indevelopment in main collection documents also. For the types of insects typically encountered in collections products, a solitary progression through the above process is normally enough.
In situations wright here a huge incoming shipment of repertoire materials has been inspected and discovered to have an infeterminal (such as bookworms), the whole distribution might have to be quarantined, boxed, palletized, shrink-wrapped, and sent off to a commercial wareresidence for frozen foodstuffs or a commercial freezing operation. A commercial freezing procedure normally maintains a continuous temperature of 0?F. The products will need to be exposed for one week because the temperature never before reaches the required -20?F. If the freezing unit is a vacuum freeze dryer, 72-hrs will certainly be adequate for effective disinfestation. However before, freezing imparts no residual benefits to the materials; they will certainly still be breakable to succeeding strike.
This term describes fumigation through miscellaneous inert gases, such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, or a combination of some of these, for insect manage. In order to use these approaches, a gas-tight structure, fumigation bubble, or low-permecapability plastic bag have to be used in order to preserve specific levels of the gases essential for full insect kill. The air is attracted out of the airtight confinement container. Nitrogen, regularly in combicountry through carbon dioxide, is then pumped into the container. Over a duration of 3 weeks, the nitrogen/carbon dioxide levels are closely monitored and preserved. After expocertain, the products are aerated prior to being carried earlier into the facility. Specialized security and also application devices is crucial for these kinds of anoxic fumigations. Most libraries and archives are not equipped to perform these forms of procedures and experienced assistance will certainly be required.
All steras of an insect’s life deserve to be efficiently eliminated by heating materials to 130?F for a duration of 3 hrs. In most instances, this type of disinfeterminal of collections is not recommfinished for cultural heritage products. Temperatures crucial for insect eradication accelerate paper aging and also oxidation, and materials can become brittle and also otherwise damaged. Microwave heating have to be totally avoided. This process is uncontrolled and also will certainly cause damage to covers and peras via the opportunity of scorching or igniting them.
Gamma radiation is supplied to sterilize cosmetics, food and also agricultural products, clinical offers, and hospital and laboratory equipment. Research has actually shown that gamma radiation may initiate oxidation and cause scission of cellushed molecules; it has actually the potential to seriously damage paper-based products. There is also a cumulative impact from repetitive exposures. Given these determinants, gamma radiation is not recommended.
The many kind of differing threats from pests make it advisable for cultural heritage establishments to develop an Incorporated Preventive Pest Management program for their structures and also collections. This effort should be enforced through the complete collaboration of staff under the direction of an IPPM committee.
An effective monitoring routine will identify what pests are present and also just how they are entering the facility, and also will certainly give understanding for the advance of a preventive program targeted at schosen pest difficulties. Non-chemical methods of pest avoidance have the right to be implemented in-house to efficiently and safely prevent infestations. Chemical treatments have to be avoided if at all feasible. The focus of any kind of IPPM routine need to be on preventing pest difficulties prior to they aclimb.
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Connecting to Collections CareIdentifying Museum Insect Pest Damage and also Addressing It via Combined Pest Management (webinar)https://www.connectingtocollections.org/webinar-pest-management/
Council of Library and also Indevelopment Resources (CLIR) and also Cornell UniversityLibrary Preservation and also Conservation Tutorial: Pest Control https://chinapreservationtutorial.library.cornell.edu/content/pest-control
Mary-Lou Florian“Freezing for Museum Insect Pest Eradication”Collection Forum, Spring 1990http://www.spnhc.org/media/assets/cofo_1990_V6N1.pdf
Incorporated Pest Management Working GroupWebsite covering prevention, monitoring, identification, and experienced advice. http://museumpests.net
National Park Service
Conserve-O-Grams: Series 3: Agents of Deteriorationhttps://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/conserveogram/cons_toc.html#collectionpreservation
NPS Museum Handbook, Part I (2014): Chapter 5, Biological Infestations.https://www.nps.gov/museum/publications/MHI/CHAP5.pdf
ptcouncil.net Preservation Leaflets2.1 Temperature, Relative Humidity, Light, and Air Quality: Basic Guidelines for Preservationhttps://www.ptcouncil.net/free-resources/preservation-leaflets/2.-the-environment/2.1-temperature,-relative-humidity,-light,-and-air-quality-basic-guidelines-for-preservation
Thomas J. K. Strang“A Rewatch of Published Temperatures for the Control of Pest Insects in Museums”Collection Forum, Fall 1992USA Department of AgricultureCooperative Exstress and anxiety Servicehttps://nifa.usda.gov/cooperative-extension-system
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