l xmlns:og="http://ogp.me/ns#" xmlns:fb="http://www.facebook.com/2008/fbml">Science the Candy: What is Sugar? | ptcouncil.netfunction MM_swapImgRestore() { //v3.0 var i,x,a=document.MM_sr; for(i=0;a&&i0&&parent.frames.length) d=parent.frames.document; n=n.substring(0,p); if(!(x=d)&&d.all) x=d.all; because that (i=0;!x&&i
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

What is sugar?

*
The white stuff we recognize as sugar is sucrose, a molecule composed of 12 atom of carbon, 22 atoms of hydrogen, and 11 atoms of oxygen (C12H22O11). Favor all compounds made from these 3 elements, sugar is a carbohydrate. It’s discovered naturally in most plants, however especially in sugarcane and also sugar beets—hence their names.

You are watching: Is sugar an element or compound

Sucrose is in reality two simpler sugars grounding together: fructose and glucose. In recipes, a little bit of mountain (for example, some lemon juice or cream that tartar) will reason sucrose to failure into these two components.

If friend look very closely at dried sugar, you’ll notice it comes in little cubelike shapes. These space sugar crystals, orderly species of sucrose molecules.

*
Under a microscope, you have the right to see that sugar crystals aren’t cubes, exactly, however oblong and also slanted at both ends. (Image courtesy the Nutrition and Food administration Dept., Oregon State University)

What happens when you heat a sugar solution?

When you add sugar come water, the sugar crystals dissolve and the street goes right into solution. But you can’t dissolve an infinite amount the sugar into a addressed volume that water. When as much sugar has been dissolved into a solution as possible, the solution is claimed to it is in saturated.

The saturation suggest is various at different temperatures. The greater the temperature, the much more sugar that can be held in solution.

When you cook up a batch of candy, you chef sugar, water, and also various various other ingredients to very high temperatures. At this high temperatures, the sugar continues to be in solution, even though much of the water has actually boiled away. However when the candy is v cooking and also begins come cool, over there is much more sugar in equipment than is generally possible. The equipment is stated to be supersaturated through sugar.

Supersaturation is an turbulent state. The sugar molecules will begin to crystallize ago into a solid at the the very least provocation. Stirring or jostling of any kind of kind can cause the sugar to start crystallizing.

See more: The Octet Rule States That In Chemical Compounds Atoms Tend To Have

Why room crystals undesirable in some candy recipes—and how do you prevent them native forming?

*

The truth that sugar solidifies right into crystals is extremely vital in liquid making. There room basically two categories of liquid - crystalline (candies i beg your pardon contain crystals in your finished form, such as fudge and also fondant), and noncrystalline, or amorphous (candies which perform not contain crystals, such as lollipops, taffy, and also caramels). Cooking recipes ingredients and also procedures because that noncrystalline candies space specifically design to protect against the development of sugar crystals, because they provide the resulting candy a grainy texture.

One means to prevent the crystallization of sucrose in candy is to make certain that there are other types of sugar—usually, fructose and glucose—to acquire in the way. Big crystals that sucrose have actually a harder time developing when molecules of fructose and also glucose space around. Crystals type something like Legos locking together, except that instead of Lego pieces, there space molecules. If several of the molecules are a various size and shape, lock won’t fit together, and a crystal doesn’t form.

A simple way to obtain other types of sugar right into the mix is to "invert" the sucrose (the straightforward white street you know well) by including an mountain to the recipe. Mountain such as lemon juice or cream of tartar reason sucrose to rest up (or invert) into its two much easier components, fructose and also glucose. Another means is to include a nonsucrose sugar, such as corn syrup, which is greatly glucose. Part lollipop recipes use as much as 50% corn syrup; this is to stop sugar crystals from damaging the texture.

Fats in candy offer a comparable purpose. Fatty ingredients such as butter help interfere v crystallization—again, by getting in the way of the sucrose molecule that space trying come lock togeter right into crystals. Toffee fan its smooth texture and easy breakability come an lack of street crystals, many thanks to a huge amount of butter in the mix.


*
*
*

- - - scientific research of food preparation - - - Webcasts - - - questioning the Inquisitive Cooks - - - re-superstructure & discuss -- - - - -