A big percentage that antibiotics and also semisynthetic drugs are produced by members the the genus A) Cephalosporium.

You are watching: It is inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat colds or flu because

B) Penicillium.

C) Bacillus.

D) Mycobacterium.

E) Streptomyces.


An antimicrobial the inhibits cell wall synthesis will an outcome in i m sorry of the following?

A) cells become more susceptible to osmotic pressure.

B) cells cannot connect to your hosts.

C) Ribosomes lose their function.

D) The sterols in the cell wall surface become nonfunctional.

E) The replication that cells, consisting of cancer cells, slowly down.


Beta-lactam antibiotics have an result on which of the following types of cells?

A) pet cells

B) bacter cells

C) fungal cells

D) virus-infected cells

E) both animal and fungal cells


Which of the complying with is a primary benefit of semisynthetic drugs?

A) lock are less stable and also consequently have actually fewer next effects.

B) They occupational faster.

C) They have a more comprehensive spectrum the action.

D) They must be administered intravenously.

E) They room not easily absorbed, therefore they persist longer.


Which the the adhering to drugs specifically targets cell walls that save arabinogalactan-mycolic acid?

A) vancomycin

B) penicillin

C) methicillin

D) isoniazid

E) bacitracin


Which the the complying with antibiotics disrupts cytoplasmic membrane function?

A) streptomycin

B) erythromycin

C) tetracycline

D) penicillin

E) amphotericin B


Which of the following is not a target the drugs that inhibit protein synthesis?

A) the shape of the 30S ribosomal subunit

B) interference with alanine-alanine bridges

C) the enzymatic site of the 50S ribosome subunit

D) movement of the ribosome from one codon come the next

E) the tRNA docking site


The most restricted group that antimicrobial agents is the __________ drugs.

A) antibacterial

B) antifungal

C) anthelmintic

D) antiviral

E) antiprotozoan


Another term because that the Kirby-Bauer test is the

A) minimum inhibitory concentration test.

B) E test.

C) diffusion susceptibility test.

D) minimum bactericidal concentration test.

E) broth dilution test.


Which of the adhering to statements around the zone of inhibition is FALSE?

A) that is measured as a diameter.

B) The larger the zone, the much more resistant the biology is.

C) that is a clearing zone with no growth.

D) it is a result of diffusion of the drug out that the record disk.

E) the is measured ~ incubation.


Which the the following groups of medicine can end up being incorporated into the bones and teeth that a fetus?

A) beta-lactams

B) aminoglycosides

C) quinolones

D) tetracyclines

E) sulfonamides


Which of the adhering to can result when antibiotic treatment disrupts the normal microbiota?

A) anaphylactic shock

B) black color hairy tongue

C) pseudomembranous colitis

D) thrush

E) both pseudomembranous colitis and also thrush

Which of the following statements concerning advancement of antibiotic resistance is FALSE?

A) the is frequently mediated through R-plasmids.

B) Resistant cells are typically in the decimal in a bacter population.

C) Resistant cell grow much more efficiently and also quickly than prone cells.

D) brand-new resistance genes can be got through transformation, transduction, or conjugation.

E) Resistance can take place through mutation of existing bacter genes.


β-lactamase manufacturing is an instance of i beg your pardon of the following varieties of resistance?

A) modification of the target the the drug

B) inactivation the the drug

C) readjust in the permeability that the drug

D) overproduction of an enzyme in a an essential metabolic pathway

E) removed of the medicine via a pump


Probiotics

A) show off microbial antagonism.

B) space an different to the use of chemotherapy.

C) show off the use of extracts from microorganisms.

D) is a term for resistance to antibiotics.

E) space an alternate to the usage of chemotherapy including microbial antagonism.


Most drugs the inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall act by

A) avoiding the cross-linkage the NAM subunits.

B) blocking the cheap of cell wall molecules indigenous the cytoplasm.

C) staying clear of the formation of alanine-alanine bridges.

D) disrupting the development of the mycolic acid layer the the cabinet wall.

E) avoiding the development of β-lactamases.


Most broad-spectrum antibiotics act by

A) inhibiting the synthesis of the cabinet wall.

B) inhibiting protein synthesis.

C) inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis.

D) inhibiting metabolic pathways.

E) disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane.


Which of the following antifungals functions by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis?

A) fluconazole

B) turbinafine

C) amphotericin B

D) nystatin

E) both fluconazole and also turbinafine


Sulfonamides

A) space antimetabolic drugs.

B) to be the very first widely used antimicrobial drugs.

C) indirect inhibit the synthesis of main point acids.

D) space no much longer widely used.

E) were the first widely provided antimetabolic antimicrobial and indirectly inhibit nucleic mountain synthesis.


E) were the very first widely provided antimetabolic antimicrobial and indirectly inhibit nucleic acid synthesis.

Which of the complying with pathways is specifically inhibited by sulfonamides?

A) the conversion of tetrahydrofolic acid to PABA

B) the switch of PABA to dihydrofolic acid

C) the switch of dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid

D) the switch of PABA come tetrahydrofolic acid

E) the conversion of dihydrofolic acid to PABA


Which that the complying with drugs inhibits nucleic acid synthesis specifically in prokaryotes?

A) quinolones

B) actinomycin

C) rifampin

D) tetracycline

E) 5-fluorocytosine


The cooperative activity of drugs such together beta-lactam antibiotics and clavulanic acid, a β-lactamase inhibitor, is known as

A) overcome resistance.

B) antimetabolism.

C) synergism.

D) selective toxicity.

E) chemotherapy.


Alterations in the structure of i beg your pardon of the complying with are crucial aspect that Gram-negative bacter resistance come antimicrobial drugs?

A) plasmids

B) porins

C) mitochondria

D) cytoplasmic membrane

E) ribosomes


It is inappropriate to prescribe antibacterial agents to treat colds or flu because

A) the microbes involved can develop resistance rapidly.

B) these conditions are sent through endospores, i beg your pardon are tough to kill.

C) these conditions exhibit cross resistance.

D) these illness are brought about by viruses.

E) these conditions can plot synergistically through each other.


Who uncovered the first widely obtainable antibiotic?

A) Domagk

B) Ehrlich

C) Fleming

D) Waksman

E) Ehrlich and Waksman


Which the the complying with statements is true of selective toxicity?

A) Selective toxicity takes benefit of structure differences in between host and also pathogen.

B) To be effective, one antimicrobial agent have to be an ext toxic come the patient than the pathogen.

C) Selective toxicity takes advantage of metabolic differences between host and pathogen.

D) Antimicrobial agents should target structure differences in between host and pathogen and be an ext toxic come the patient than the pathogen.

E) Selective toxicity takes advantage of structure and/or metabolic differences in between host and pathogen.


E) Selective toxicity takes advantage of structure and/or metabolic differences in between host and also pathogen.

Antimicrobials the block protein synthesis by binding come the mRNA are

A) aminoglycosides.

B) antisense main point acids.

C) macrolides.

D) beta-lactams.

E) nucleic mountain analogs.


B) antisense main point acids.


The Etest identify which that the following?

A) susceptibility

B) MBC

C) MIC

D) both susceptibility and also MIC

E) both MBC and MIC


D) both susceptibility and MIC


Which of the adhering to is not a criterion whereby all antimicrobial agents can be evaluated?

A) your spectrum that action

B) your efficacy

C) their activity against cabinet walls

D) their course of administration

E) their safety


C) their activity against cell walls


Which of the following interferes with cell wall surface synthesis by blocking alanine bridge formation?

A) beta-lactams

B) cycloserine

C) bacitracin

D) vancomycin

E) both cycloserine and vancomycin


E) both cycloserine and also vancomycin

Antimicrobial sugar analogs are reliable for

A) avoiding bacterial protein synthesis.

B) staying clear of cell membrane synthesis.

C) staying clear of virus attachment.

D) avoiding nucleic acid synthesis.

E) blocking a metabolic pathway.


C) preventing virus attachment.


Which that the following is a measurement linked with the broth dilution test?

A) the zone that inhibition

B) lack of turbidity

C) cabinet lysis

D) lack of turbidity and also zone of inhibition

E) existence of turbidity and also cell lysis

B) absence of turbidity


Infection that the __________ would be the hardest to treat v antimicrobial drugs.

A) heart

B) kidneys

C) liver

D) brain

E) colon


D) brain


Disruption the the regular microbiota can an outcome in epidemic caused whereby of the following microbes?

A) Mycobacterium

B) Candida albicans

C) Clostridium difficile

D) both Mycobacterium and also Clostridium difficile

E) Candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium difficile


E) Candida albicans, Mycobacterium, and Clostridium difficile

The antimicrobials referred to as quinolones act by

A) disrupting cytoplasmic membranes.

B) inhibiting cell wall surface synthesis.

C) inhibiting nucleic mountain synthesis.

D) inhibiting a metabolic pathway.

E) inhibiting protein synthesis.


C) inhibiting nucleic mountain synthesis.


Amphotericin B is one antifungal drug that

A) inhibits protein synthesis.

B) inhibits nucleic acid synthesis.

C) blocks a metabolic pathway.

D) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes.

E) inhibits cell wall surface synthesis.


D) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes.


The system of action of the antibiotic vancomycin is

A) inhibition of protein synthesis.

B) inhibition the cell wall synthesis.

C) inhibition that nucleic mountain synthesis.

D) inhibition the a metabolic pathway.

E) disruption the cytoplasmic membranes.


B) inhibition the cell wall surface synthesis.


The tetracyclines interfere with

A) protein synthesis.

B) cell wall synthesis.

C) cabinet membrane component synthesis.

D) nucleic mountain synthesis.

E) folic mountain synthesis.

A) protein synthesis.


Trimethoprim is an instance of antimicrobials that

A) disrupt cytoplasmic membranes.

B) inhibit cell wall synthesis.

C) inhibit nucleic acid synthesis.

D) inhibit metabolic pathways.

E) inhibit protein synthesis

D) inhibit metabolic pathways.


The system of action of erythromycin is

A) inhibition of protein synthesis.

B) inhibition of cell wall synthesis.

C) inhibition the nucleic acid synthesis.

D) inhibition that a metabolic pathway.

E) disruption the cytoplasmic membranes.


A) inhibition the protein synthesis.


Methicillin is an example of the beta-lactam class of drugs that

A) disrupt cytoplasmic membranes.

B) inhibit cell wall synthesis.

C) inhibit nucleic mountain synthesis.

D) inhibit metabolic pathways.

E) inhibit protein synthesis.

B) inhibit cell wall synthesis.


Ribavirin is an antiviral that interferes with

A) protein synthesis.

B) cell wall surface synthesis.

C) cabinet membrane component synthesis.

D) nucleic mountain synthesis.

E) famous attachment.


D) nucleic acid synthesis.


The antimicrobial polymyxin

A) inhibits protein synthesis.

B) inhibits nucleic mountain synthesis.

C) block a metabolic pathway.

D) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes.

E) inhibits cell wall synthesis.


D) disrupts cytoplasmic membranes.


The system of action of sulfonamides is

A) inhibition of metabolic pathways.

B) inhibition the cell wall synthesis.

C) inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis.

D) disruption that cytoplasmic membranes.

E) inhibition the protein synthesis.


A) inhibition the metabolic pathways.


Paul Erhlich coined the hatchet antibiotics because that the "magic bullet" antimicrobials that pursued. True/False
False
Antisense nucleic acids room designed to have actually no next effects versus humans. True/False
True
Beta-lactam medicine act through inhibiting formation of the cytoplasmic membrane. True/False
False
since all cells connect in protein synthesis, over there are few antimicrobial drugs that selectively inhibit this process. True/False
False
many antimicrobial drugs that impact the cytoplasmic membrane are used only externally since they deserve to be toxic to humans. True/False
True
part bacterial cells room resistant come a selection of antimicrobials due to the fact that they actively pump the drugs out of the cell. True/False
True
The outer membrane that Gram-negative bacteria allows many antimicrobial medicine to enter the cell more easily. True/False
False
If a subculture of an MIC check grows in an MBC test, the concentration that the medicine was bactericidal. True/False
False
Brain and also spinal cord epidemic are challenging to treat since most antimicrobial medicine cannot diffuse the end of the blood right into these organs. True/False
True
guts that space commonly influenced by drug toxicity incorporate the kidneys and also the liver. True/False
True
Any drug that acts against a condition is called a(n) __________ agent.
chemotherapeutic
Selective __________ means that a offered antimicrobial agent is more toxic come a pathogen than to the organize being treated.
Toxicity

Nucleotide or nucleoside __________are antimicrobial agents the mimic the chemical structure of DNA structure blocks.


analogs
A broad-spectrum __________ is effective versus a wide range of pathogens.
drug

Secondary epidemic that result from the killing of the normal microbiota are referred to as __________.


Superinfections
Competition between useful microbes and also potential pathogens is dubbed microbial __________.
antagonism
A(n) __________ concentration of a medicine is one at which microbes survive but are no able come grow and reproduce.
bacteriostatic
R-plasmids room __________ piece of DNA the promote horizontal deliver of genes among bacteria and also contribute come the spread out of antimicrobial resistance.
extrachromosomal
Some bacteria construct resistance to groups of drugs due to the fact that the drugs space all structurally similar to each other; this is a phenomenon well-known as __________ resistance.
cross
Second-generation drugs room semisynthetic drugs occurred to combat __________ against an existing drug.
resistance
Drugs that sluggish down bacterial growth would it is in __________ come penicillin.
antagonistic
External infections have the right to be cure by __________ administration, in i beg your pardon a drug is used directly come the website of infection.
topical
The abbreviation __________ means the the smallest amount of a medicine that will inhibit the growth and reproduction the a pathogen. (Be certain to usage all funding letters.)
MIC
Antiviral medications generally block unique __________ to protect against production of brand-new virus.

See more: How Far Is California To New York To California, How Many Miles From New York To California


enzymes
Praziquantel changes the cytoplasmic membrane permeability of __________ worms.
parasitic

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