Welcome! together an employee that a restaurant, your occupational is really important together you space responsible because that the preparation of foods that will certainly be spend by a large number of people. Every diner expects to uncover food in the floor of fantastic quality however hygienic and also that perform not pose any type of risk come your health or that of her family. The foodstuffs you make can come to be contaminated through microbes or various other substances if they space not do under strictly health and also hygiene guidelines. The target of this workshop is to provide you recognize these guidelines so friend can:

Recognize the main reasons of contamination in foodIdentify food-borne diseasesTo know the hygienic actions in the elaboration and also manipulation of the foodsDistinguish ideal practices at each phase of the food processing processRecognize crucial control points to minimize dangers in the food processing processConditions of facility where food is preparedNormative facets in the procedure of food preparation and service and also conclusions

Why is hygienic food taking care of important?: The impact on consumer health and also economics

Food-borne illness are among the most commonly encountered publicly health problems in the people population. Countless of the conditions have their beginning in the ready of food at any type of stage of the food chain; from main production to the consumer.

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In addition to the influence on public health, food air pollution has economic effects on establishments specialized to the preparation and sale, due to the fact that if over there is break out of disease in the population, these establishments lose dependability that deserve to lead to closure. Fortunately, actions to avoid pollution of food space very straightforward and deserve to be used by anyone that handles food.

The objective of this web page is to carry out you with handy information ~ above hygienic food handling, the problems that occur from food-borne diseases, poor an individual hygiene, unclean food ready stations and the keys to prevent air pollution of food.

Message to Food Handlers: us all re-publishing the obligation of cleanliness

Handling food is miscellaneous that, regardless of the trade, we all do daily. Some believe that those who prepare food are only the chefs and also cooks in many hotels or restaurants, but the fact is that there are plenty of other world who handle on a day-to-day basis the food us eat have actually a hygienic top quality that prevents us all from the danger of diseases, so the it is a shared responsibility.

Diarrhea and other cradle diseases affect people due to the lack of good hygiene while prepare food. Food-borne disease affects the many susceptible population, such together children, the elderly, pregnant women and also the sick, and also it is well-known that around two-thirds of the epidemics occur due to the fact that of food usage in restaurants, cafeterias, college canteens and also in the same houses. If us manipulate food constantly under the appropriate hygienic standards, we will prevent our families, or our client from gaining sick. Food-borne illness, in enhancement to bring about discomfort come those who experience from it, can also have an ext serious short- or irreversible consequences.

In enhancement to the ills that impact people’s health, food-borne illnesses additionally discredit the food businesses and also those who work in the sector, which way a lose of confidence in the business and also loss of work. Our contribution as food handlers is therefore key in a food establishment and our work-related is of paramount prestige to take treatment of our health, the of ours family, the of our community and also that that the business in i m sorry we serve food.

Food chain: within every link there is hazard of contamination

The food chain start in the field, or primary production, come the final consumer. Throughout the food chain assets are subjected to different processing processes and risk cases that can contaminate food, therefore, that is throughout the chain wherein extreme treatment must be taken to ensure that food is not contaminated.

I. Main causes of Food Contamination

Sources that Contaminant

Biological Hazards

A contaminant is all issue that is included into food through the capability to produce condition or damage to the user. There space three species of hazards that have the right to contaminate food and also pose a hazard to public health. The first and most common are biological hazards and the main trouble of microorganisms, i beg your pardon are defined as living, microscopic, uncovered everywhere, consisting of water, air and land. We can differentiate bacteria, yeasts, fungi, viruses and also parasites, depending upon their size, shape and means of life. In general, bacteria and viruses have a significant impact ~ above food safety. This type of contamination have the right to reach the food through the person contact, by contact with contaminated food or through surfaces such together tables, containers, utensils or contaminated equipment. Pollution can also be blamed top top pests that land top top food such together flies, ants, cockroaches and also rats.

Physical Hazards

Physical risks are linked with the existence of international objects in food. These hazards are potentially capable of creating injuries come those that consume a contaminated food. Some examples of physical perils are: international matter such together stones, pieces of glass, timber or steel and also non-edible parts of foodstuffs such as piece of bone or fruit seeds. Foreign matter have the right to be detached from tools or equipment, pieces of glass may come from damaged lamps, pieces of timber usually come native packaging or pallets. Physical contaminants, particularly those of steel or glass, space potentially qualified of producing injury to a human who spend a food.

Chemical Hazards

Chemical hazards can take place throughout the food chain. Because that example: residual water of chemicals supplied in pest regulate could contaminate the storage and also processing step of food once they have direct call with toxic substances such as pesticides, fuels, lubricants, paints, detergents, disinfectants, amongst others. Air pollution can additionally occur in ~ food ready sites and through occupational utensils. Some instances of chemical risks are toxic substances that space naturally existing in the food, such together biotoxins and also mycotoxins; ecological or commercial contaminants such as heavy metals; residual water of chemistry such together pesticides and also cleaning chemistry such as chlorine and also detergents; and toxic substances sent through the call of food with the container or other materials.

Origin that Contamination

Microorganisms are everywhere; in the environment we find them:

• In the air, the earth, and also the wind• In contaminated utensils• In contaminated food• In water• In the trash and leftover food

Also human and also animals are sources of contamination, due to the fact that the microorganisms room found:

• In the skin that animals and humans• In infected wounds• In the hair• In dirty hands and nails• In the saliva the humans and also animals• In stools or excrement

Primary Contamination

Primary air pollution occurs during the process of main food production. For example: during harvesting, milking or fishing. A typical example is as soon as the egg is contaminated through the feces the the hen.

2. Straight Contamination

With straight contamination, the contaminants with the food through the person who handles them. This form of pollution is maybe the simplest and most common type of food contamination. A common example is once we sneeze over food.

Cross Contamination

Cross pollution is construed as the i from a hazard existing in a food to another that to be innocuous, using as car surfaces or tools that have remained in contact v both foods items without ideal cleaning and also disinfection. The many frequent creates of cross-contamination happen when the manipulator enables the call of a life food v a cook one ready to consume, through cutting plank or kitchen utensils.

Another example of this kind of contamination occurs as soon as grilling meat and also using the same tray where the raw foods were cut.

Steps to preventing Cross Contamination

Personal hygieneHand washingFood handlingSeparate and also store properlyCleaning and also sanitizingClean and sanitize surfaces and utensilsClean and sanitize cleaning rags

The most frequent reasons of cross contamination are poor an individual hygiene, negative food handling and inadequate cleaning and the lack of a sanitizing process.

To stop cross contamination, one of the most important tasks is hand washing. The is essential to wash your hands number of times on the shift and do it properly.

Wash hand before:

Putting on glovesWhen an altering activityAfter managing raw foodAfter acquisition breaks and also using the toiletAfter touching anything other than a food

It is very important come properly manage food. One method of proper handling foods items is to separate different types in different areas of the kitchen throughout storage, preparation, handling, display and also service.

Finally, keeping the restaurant clean and also sanitized is also very important to stop cross contamination.

Factors the Encourage the Reproduction of Microorganisms

Bacteria, like all living beings, require certain conditions to live and reproduce so understanding what those conditions are and how we can act on them will allow us to prevent bacteria indigenous reproducing. Microorganisms can only reproduce if we carry out the necessary conditions for them come flourish. An instance of this would certainly be leaving potentially hazardous foods out because that a lengthy time in ~ room temperature.

The first factor that favors a fast development of the bacteria room the nutrients. Foods rich in proteins, such as milk, meat, creams, egg are much more prone come contamination and because of their high nutritional value additionally serve together food because that microorganisms. Climate there is the amount of water that the food contains, since this is indispensable for the life of the bacteria. Foods items like milk, mayonnaise and creams have a high mix of water and nutrients, making them very risky foods.

Potentially Hazardous Foods

Microorganisms construct easily, due to their high content of proteins, carbohydrates, moisture and also low acidity, within chicken, fish, fruit cocktails, beef, pork, milk, egg, cakes, pre-cooked foods, among others.

Foods in i beg your pardon the microbe will develop easily, due to their high contents in proteins, carbohydrates, humidity and low acidity, encompass chicken, fish, fruit cocktails, beef, pork, milk, egg, cakes, precooked foods, ready-to-eat foods, among others.

Temperature Management

Another necessary factor is temperature. Bacteria can be classified right into psychrophiles, thermophiles, and mesophiles depending on their optimal reproduction temperature. Mesophilic bacteria with their highest possible reproduction at temperature close come the human body, and also therefore, we have to follow certain guidelines to prevent their multiplication. In basic terms, that is considered that under 5 ° C/41° F, growth and multiplication that bacteria room delayed; between 60 ° C/140° F and also 70 ° C/158° F bacter reproduction is short or zero, and above 65 ° C/149° F (adequate cooking) guarantee a safe and safe food. Possibly hazardous foodstuffs should be retained out of the “danger zone”.

Never leave food the end of refrigeration for more than 2 hours. If the wait temperature is over 32 ° C/89.6° F, the food must not be left the end of refrigeration for more than 1 hour. Hot foods items should be kept heat at or over 65 ° C/149° F. Location cooked foodstuffs in buffet trays, steamer, warming trays, or slow cooking pots. Cold foods should be kept cool, i.e. At a temperature much less than or equal to 5 ° C/41° F.

Food must be placed in the refrigerator or in containers v ice.

Time and also Temperature Control

Research shows that if bacteria grow in the “danger zone”, approximately 4 hours, they room not enough to cause disease. So managing the time you store food in the peril zone is very important. There are plenty of food retail and also serving establishments in which foodstuffs are quit along the method before they room consumed. This is referred to as the food flow. Every action of the means is important, and we need to all occupational together to keep food the end of the peril zone as much as possible. Indigenous the minute food come until the time it is consumed, many human being are associated in the preparation, cooking and also transportation that food. Every levels of employment must recognize the circulation of food and how to keep food safe and safe. Time and also temperature regulate during Arrival/Delivery, Storage, Preparation, Cooking, Retention, Refrigeration and Reheating is crucial.


The vast majority of bacteria need oxygen come survive, although some reproduce in environments without oxygen and also are called anaerobic. Bacteria can grow much more easily in some foods such together bulky pieces of meat. Bacteria, in right conditions, is may be to twin its number in simply 20 minutes.

II. Food-borne illness (ETAs): ETAS = conditions Transmitted by Food

Food-borne conditions (ETA stands together it is well-known in various locations related to food) space those that are brought about by ingestion of infected food contaminants in sufficient quantities to affect consumer health. Illness within food can reason illness occurring from pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, helminth or chemicals, which are discovered inside.


Food-borne illness are those transmittable or toxic conditions caused by agents (biological, chemical or physical) that penetrate the body using a food as a vehicle. The most common causes are poisoning and also infections. The impacts of FBD (Food-borne Diseases) have the right to be serious and sometimes fatal. Once we talk about infections, it is as soon as consuming a food contaminated with germs that cause disease, such together bacteria, larvae or eggs of part parasites. It may be the situation of bacteria such as Salmonella existing in eggs, meats, chickens, dairy, raw vegetables and also cut or peeled fruits. ~ above the other hand, an intoxication refers to when food contaminated through chemicals, toxins developed by some germs, or with toxins that might be existing in the food are consumed and also generally the consequences are much more serious.

Every year in the unified States:48 million human being get sick128,000 room hospitalized3,000 die

The CDC (Center of condition Control) approximates 48 million people get sick, 128,000 are hospitalized, and 3,000 die from food-borne illness each year in the united States. In 2016, FoodNet got reports that 24, 029 ETAs, 5,512 hospitalizations and 98 deaths from shown infections. The incidence of infections was greater for Campylobacter and also Salmonella, which is constant with previous years. The variety of diagnosed Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Yersinia infections raised by 114% in 2016 compared to the typical of 2013- 2015.

Pathogenic microorganisms

The bacteria the commonly reason diseases have really long and also strange names, yet it is not challenging to understand just how they affect us. The pathogenic microbes that space the cause of disease, reach human being when castle eat contaminated food or develop substances dubbed toxins. Symptom of the disease may vary, however nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache and, in some cases, fever may occur. If the symptom are strong and the influenced person is very susceptible, he may also die. Bacteria the cause condition are naturally current in the environment. The 6 most typical pathogenic bacteria are: Clostridium Botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia Coli, Listeria Monocytogenes, Salmonella and Staphylococcus Aureus. Every of these ETAs have certain signs and symptoms and also may vary in the severity the the situation, depending upon the food consumed, the amounts and particularities the the human who consumed it.

Transmission Ways

The route of transmission for the fecal-oral epidemiological cycle is among the most common ways of transmitting the pathogen to food. The quick oral fecal bicycle occurs as soon as a human being with ETA, or healthy and balanced carrier, does no wash their hands after ~ going to the bathroom and also then manipulates foods items that space consumed through others that subsequently become ill. The long oral fecal bicycle occurs once fecal matter reaches streams of water used for watering of vegetables or fruits and when washing and disinfection is not done, the ingestion of pathogenic bacteria occurs. Us ourselves space the main auto of pollution of food v hands, hair, saliva, sweat, dirty clothes, coughing or sneezing; food is contaminated, i beg your pardon is why that is really important to follow the hygiene standards required.


Other routes of transmission incorporate microbes the live and also are transported by animals such as cockroaches, flies, rats or mice, ants; this are well-known as pests. These pets live and reproduce in the most polluted locations such as drainage, garbage and land; that is why numerous microbes stick on their bodies. If they room in the kitchen, these animals carry millions of microbes that space going to deposit in the work-related surfaces, equipment and foods wherever they go and also put at hazard health. The pests pollute everything they touch together their saliva, legs, excrement and their very own parasites contain numerous bacteria that cause disease. That is why it is necessary to protect against pests by consistent cleaning, and also not leave leftover food in the areas of storage and preparation. The is much less complicated to stop entry and breakthrough of pest, 보다 to try to remove it when it has been established.

Another means of transport provided by microbes to enter our kitchen space raw foods, because these space contaminated by origin as result of their handling, and also as us cannot see them with the nude eye, we often use and also manipulate raw foods without the vital care. For example, beef, chicken, pork and other assets of pet origin, go through numerous processes prior to they with us, and also in that way, they room contaminated v bacteria the the animal, the equipment and also the personnel that and also as a an outcome of call with various other sources of air pollution such as excreta indigenous the very same animal, blood and also other contaminated animals. The microbes existing in the raw materials will multiply during transport if the temperature in ~ which food is tackled is not adequate, so the is necessary that raw foodstuffs do not contaminate those currently prepared, one of two people by direct contact, or through hands or equipment.

Earth and also Air

An important means of contamination for food is contaminated water. Water is contaminated with human being waste, trash, etc., which space thrown right into rivers, seas and also lakes. Therefore, this contaminated water carries numerous microbes the we can ingest directly if not offered an ideal treatment to make it drinkable, ending up being a really important automobile of pollution for food. In addition, fish, seafood and other products marine organisms space contaminated with the water in which they live, gift able to cause us diseases if us consume castle raw. Many fruits and also vegetables room watered v black water, also when that is prohibited.

Finally, a big amount and range of microbes are uncovered on the earth, which also contaminate the air, plants, animals and also water. Few of these microbes can cause us serious illnesses. The land and its contaminants can reach the facility to the areas of preparation, storage and also service in the exact same foods, packaging, employees and also air. This is why that is crucial to keep food covered, nearby windows and also doors, have an excellent hygiene habits and check the food top top arrival.

III. Hygienic measures in food processing and handling:If you room sick or hurt … remain away from food!

As we have seen, the main cause of food contamination is ourselves, especially the absence of toilet in the taking care of of food, the is why the world in charge of this job-related play critical role in avoiding pollution. A responsible mindset when handling food is definitive for the wellness of the population. If we desire to prepare and eat safe food, we need to put somebasic rules of personal hygiene.

The an initial is that if you room sick you have to stay away from food. If you have the flu, colds or coughs, you need to not be in call with food as it is unpreventable sneezing, or coughing, and if you room preparing food, girlfriend are most likely to carry out it ~ above them and contaminate them. If you have diarrhea, you understand that you will go several bath and also every time friend go, are you going to wash her hands thoroughly with soap and also water? when we have actually skin infections, the area has actually millions that microbes the by way of our hand they pass to whatever that we touch, contaminating it. In all these cases it is better to notify your supervisor and also that day, work-related in another area of the facility where you execute not prepare or offer food. As component of the health and wellness controls the the manipulator, the authorities occasionally require the exercise of clinical or laboratory tests, however being effectively trained because that hygienic manipulation is the most necessary requirement to do this task. Even if you room healthy, not coughing, or sneezing ~ above food, since in our throat and also mouth there space microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus, i beg your pardon live there, also though we do not have actually symptoms of the disease. Cover her mouth completely with your forearm or disposable paper, and also wash her hands prior to resuming your labors.

Wash her hands! the is All-Important!

Personal hygiene: prior to handling food, wash your hands thoroughly with heat drinking water and also soap. The very same procedure should be performed after performing some type of activity where the hands may have actually been contaminated. Think it or not, over there is an appropriate means to wash your hands because it is not just putting lock under water because that a couple of seconds. For efficient handwashing to protect against disease, it need to be done properly.

There are several things come remember around handwashing:

Food handlers should wash your hands in a one-of-a-kind designated ar or in an automatically sink and also can not clean your hands in a sink the is provided for the ready of food or utensils; either in a utility basin or a designated tank because that disposal that dirty water and similar liquid wastes. This has the three-compartment slicer, the rubbish bar in the bar area, and also the vegetable ready slicer.

The water must be in between warm and also hot, but not also hot. Girlfriend should have the ability to keep her hands under running water because that at the very least 20 seconds.

Proper disinfectant soap and a toilet drying tool should be used. You need to not usage rags, towels, aprons or any type of other towel to dry her hands, even if friend think they are clean. Use single-use file towels or hot-air dryers.Remember, not just are friend protecting her customers, suitable hand washing helps you continue to be healthy and prevent need to miss work because they room sick. Handwashing is the most essential thing!

Correct Handwashing Technique

Follow this 11 actions of handwashing technique, which need to last between 40 and also 60 seconds:1. Wet hands v water.2. Place a enough amount of soap in the palm the the hand to cover the surface ar of the hands.3. Rub the palms of her hands together.4. Obstacle the palm the the right hand versus the earlier of the left hand, interlacing the fingers and vice versa.5. Obstacle the palms of your hands together with your finger intertwined.6. Rub the earlier of the fingers of one hand with the palm of the contrary hand, grasping the fingers.7. Obstacle the left thumb in a rotating motion, trapping it v the best palm and vice versa.8. Rub the reminder of the finger of the appropriate hand versus the left hand, make a rotation movement and vice versa.9. Wash hands through water.10. Dry her hands v a disposable towel.11. Usage the bath towel to revolve off the tap.

Wash her hands:

Before starting your work.After going to the bathroom.When prepare food.When switching from raw food taking care of to ready-to-eat foods.If friend touched any kind of cuts or cuts.If you touched any part of the body: mouth, nose, hair.After clean the tables and removing dirty dishes.Before changing gloves.When girlfriend touched any kind of object that could contaminate your hands, such as taking care of chemicals or acquisition out the trash.

Wash your hands before starting work. Remember the the hands space in call with multiple things filled through microbes, such as keys,doors, money, shoes, hair, etc.

Wash your hands after ~ going come the bathroom also if you just go come the bathroom to speak or adjust clothes due to the fact that it is a ar where over there is a lot of of hidden dangers.

Wash your hands if girlfriend touch objects that are generally handled by plenty of people, or something dirty prefer trash cans, boxes, rags, etc. So we deserve to prevent cross contamination when we move tasks.

Hygienic steps to avoid Food Contamination

Other hygiene procedures include:

Keep nails clean, short and without varnish or enamel.Showering prior to going to work-related with lot of of soap and also water need to be component of the routine of the food handler. Bathe every day prior to work begins. If there space no showers whereby you work, then bathe in your house.If you have actually a moustache or mustache, take it and do no pass from the edge of her lips.The hair need to be washed and collected with a cap or handkerchief.Wash your this after every meal, to avoid infections in the mouth.

Clothing and Uniform

Clothing can be a resource of food contamination as it has microbes and soil the come indigenous our everyday activities. The appropriate clothing for the food handler includes:1. A cap or cap that completely covers the hair.2. Coat, apron or irradiate colored sweater, there is no buttons or bags and also used only in the occupational area.3. Covering mouths, covering nose and also mouth.4. Gloves.6. Distinct footwear, i beg your pardon is provided only in the work-related area.

Wear a freshly laundred uniform perfect clean and also the apron and also cap must be simple, light colored and also do no require continual accommodation. Turbans or caps have to be light-colored. It is advisable to have actually a clean uniform in her locker for any type of unforeseen accident. Execute not use the apron together a rag to clean, or to dry your hands on it.

You must never stay jewelry, make-up or false nails.

You need to not wear jewelry favor earrings, rings, bracelets, servants or watches, due to the fact that there are numerous microbes that will certainly contaminate the foods you are preparing; either because they get dirty, or even since they autumn into them. Also, if they gain stuck or loss on the computer, they deserve to break the down, or worse, cause a harmful accident.

It is likewise forbidden to usage makeup, eyelashes and false nails for the exact same reason.

Also, perform not smoke, eat, drink or chew gum if you space working due to the fact that food can be splashed v saliva drops, chewing gum or food.

Use of gloves

To minimization hand call with ready-to-eat foods, that is important to stay disposable gloves. Gloves space not a substitute for hand washing, together they must be washed prior to putting ~ above gloves and after changing gloves. Why? Gloves room food call surfaces. They have to be retained clean and readjusted every 4 hours of constant work.

Individual gloves have to only be offered for a task, such as working v ready-to-eat foodstuffs or raw animal foods. They must not be offered for various other purposes and also should be discarded as soon as they space dirty or damaged or when disruptions occur in the operation.

If one employee has injuries or sores, they need to be extended properly and then put on the glove to protect the food.

Rest, Dressing and also Dining Areas

The spaces for employees to rest, dress and also feed themselves or recreate us are additionally a basic part the the hygienic managing of food and also therefore, they space subject to clean processes. This spaces include: remainder areas, dressing rooms, restrooms and also dining rooms. It is recommended that the lockers be installed slightly elevated from the floor to have the ability to clean underneath them. Employee must recognize the rules of use, which incorporate not storing perishable products, chemicals, dirty clothes, and so on .; and also periodic testimonial of lockers. Canteens, dressing rooms, and also toilets should constantly be clean and organized and separated indigenous cooking and food ready areas.

IV. Best Practices in the process of Food Processing


For the strongest possible food safety, the is important to use the ideal practices throughout the food handling process. The steps are: Reception, Storage, Preparation, which requires several extr steps and also Service.


Proper inspection.Plan the receipt that the products.Check the qualities that exchange mail to each type of product.Check the arrival temperature of the food.Immediately keep food in proper places.Avoid overloading the freezers.Raw foods should be put in the lower parts.Consider the recommendations of the tools manufacturers.Avoid storing large quantities of warm food in large containers.All save on computer food must be correctly covered.

When receiving and also handling food, the following points must be taken right into account:

1. Deliveries should be made in a fashionable fashion, allowing for sufficient inspection.2. Setup for the receipt the the products, ensuring there is a ideal place available to save them.3. Examine odor, color, flavor, aroma and texture the correspond come each kind of product.4. Inspect the come temperature of the food follow to the indict for preservation in freezing, refrigeration or hot.5. Automatically store the food in the ideal places and also in the temperature problems indicated for each one.6. Avoid overloading the freezers since this to reduce the cold circulation and also makes cleaning the devices difficult.7. Raw foods items should be inserted in the lower parts and also those that are prepared to eat or that execute not require food preparation at the top, to protect against cross contamination. (This is based on the reality that raw foodstuffs can relax juices that have the right to contaminate cook foods).8. Consideration should be provided to the references of the manufacturers that the tools used, about the areas where food must be accommodated.9. Avoid storing big amounts of warm food in huge containers because this reasons the frozen fridge temperature to increase to the suggest of place other foods items inside the risk zone.10. All stored food have to be appropriately covered.

Receiving and also Handling of raw Materials

Foods that are obtained or supplied in restaurants should come native the list of authorized providers.The gaskets need to be visibly clean and free of damages to safeguard food native contamination.Make sure foods items are received at a for sure temperature.

Foods the are got or supplied in restaurants need to come native the list of authorized suppliers.The gaskets have to be visibly clean and cost-free of damage to safeguard food native contamination.They must be received at a safe temperature.

Storage of life Materials

Place cool, dry, ventilated, clean.Separate floors the walls, ceiling and also floor through a minimum the 15 centimeters.Shelves should always be used to store raw materials.

These actions will help prevent pests in this area

The storage of food relies on the kind of product to it is in stored. The ar of storage, for commodities that execute not call for refrigeration or freezing, should be:

Fresh, dry, fine ventilated, clean, separate shelves of walls, ceiling and floor through a minimum of 15 centimeters. Humidity and heat space the biggest hazards for these foods. The warehouse temperature need to be maintained between 10-20 ° C/50-68 ° F.Shelves or pallets should always be provided to keep raw materials.It have to not it is in exposed come splashes, dust or various other contamination.It have to be free of pests and insects.

Food correctly packaged.Avoid cross contamination.Handling of commodities in bulk.Well labeled.

When storing raw materials, one of two people in the dry area or in the frozen fridge or freezer, it is really important that they space well packed. Packaging should be adequate and also in an excellent condition to protect the verity of that contents.

Contaminants, such as microorganisms, dust, foreign matter and chemicals, may be introduced through other commodities or tools stored near food, or by persons that deliver, store or open packages or wrappings.

In every storage areas, food must be spanned or wrapped, either in its initial cartons or in other approved containers. All gaskets must be intact, undamaged and also kept clean. Be sure not to reduced or damage the food containers that are got together in a box or to rest the wrapper as soon as opening the carton. Hermetically sealed containers that have visible dirt have to be cleaned prior to opening.

Bulk products, such together sugar and also flour, have the right to be cleared into covered, approved containers to prevent contamination from the outside. However, such containers must have actually a design that enables easy cleaning in between uses.

All foods, particularly the many risky, should be well labeled and dated to ensure they space safe and also safe and ensure your quality.

Rotation of raw Materials

Record date of receipt and/or preparation

The correct rotation that the raw products is to apply the rule “The an initial That walk First”, which deserve to be done by record the day each product the date the food was obtained or prepared. Staff will certainly then save the products with the closest due day at the optimal or front. This allows great rotation that the products, but also helps in keeping track of

when to discard commodities with expired dates.

Labeling of life Materials

Product nameIngredientsQuantityDate that receiptDate the elaborationNutrition and allergen informationProvider

The labeling that food is a vital point in hygienic food handling. At the moment of receipt and prior to storage, the raw materials must be labeled. The information contained on the label will help to respect the procedure of “First tickets and very first Departures”.

Food Preparation

Disinfection of fruits and also vegetablesRaw foodDefrosting foodCooking foodPre-prepared food handlingCooling and also ReheatingReady-to-serve foodsService

As component of food processing, complied with by receipt and also storage, it is the rotate to what is correctly the preparation and theservice, whereby we will certainly talk around the adhering to points:

Disinfection that fruits and also vegetablesRaw foodDefrosting foodCooking foodPre-prepared food handling: Cooling and also ReheatingReady-to-serve foodsService

Disinfection of Fruits and Vegetables

Wash them with clean water and detergent.Use a brush or scrub brush.Rinse thoroughly with water after washing.Apply the disinfectant as specified.Mark the finish procedure through clear accuse on the scoreboard.The ready of food sauces need to comply v the washing and also disinfection of each of the ingredients.

As already mentioned, for different reasons, this kind of food generally comes v a the majority of microbes, so the is an extremely important to very closely follow the following steps come ensure that you are preparing for sure foods:

Wash them v drinking water and detergent, one by one or in tiny bundles. Usage a brush or scouring pad to aid remove soil and also dirt.

Rinse the water fine after washing, to remove any type of remaining detergent or dirt, so that the disinfectant can act correctly.

Apply the disinfectant as stated on the brand (especially regarding amount and also time the action).

We imply you ask your supervisor to note in containers or on the scoreboard because that this purpose, the amount of water come use; and also the one the puts a authorize that reminds you the entirety procedure with clear instructions.

Do no forget the for the ready of food sauce you have to comply with the washing and disinfection of every of the ingredient that call for it.

Raw Foods

Foods such together meat, poultry, fish and also seafood can be contaminated v different types of microorganisms.

Raw egg may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria.

If for any reason you need to offer any type of of these assets to your customers, you need to specify in the food selection that stated dish is offered under consumer consideration and also the hazard involved.

Because of the air pollution within our waters, foodstuffs such together meat, poultry, fish and shellfish deserve to be contaminated v different types of microorganisms that produce diseases such as cholera, salmonellosis, typhoid, hepatitis and others, so it is an extremely risky to consume castle raw. Also, the life egg might be contaminated v Salmonella bacteria, therefore you should not use it life in the ready of dressings, salads and mayonnaise. If you execute not desire to use commercial preparations, you deserve to use pasteurized egg. If for any kind of reason you need to offer any kind of of these products to your customers, you have to specify in the food selection that claimed dish is offered under consumer consideration and also the risk involved.

Food Defrosting

Switch from freezing to refrigeration.

The various other accepted an approach is going directly from freezing to the cooking process (oven, cooktop or grill).

Never defrost in ~ room temperature and also less in non-potable water.

In exceptional cases, girlfriend will have the ability to thaw the water stream, as long as the water is safe and clean with a temperature below 21 ° C/69.8 ° F and also does not come to be watertight.

Under no circumstances need to you refreeze the parts of food friend thawed, as this influence the microbiological and physicochemical quality of food.

Safe methods for thawing foodstuffs are:

When convert from freezing to refrigeration, you should arrangement in development the lot you room going to use: freeze them indigenous the freezer to the refrigerator because that as long as necessary, thus avoiding exposure to the Temperature risk Zone.

The various other accepted method is going straight from freeze to the cooking process (oven, range or grill); this applies to assets such as precooked frozen vegetables, meats, hamburgers and also foods that enable it, there is no affecting its texture or quality.

Never defrost in ~ room temperature or in non-potable water, as it favors the development of the microorganisms present.In exceptional cases, i.e. Emergencies, you deserve to defrost the water jet, ensuring the following: that the water is drinkable with a temperature listed below 21 ° C/69.8 ° F and does no leak.

Under no circumstances have to you refreeze the parts of food friend thawed, as this affects the microbiological and also physicochemical high quality of food.

Food Cooking

Poultry and stuffed meats: in the thickest part must reach a minimum temperature that 74 ° C/165.2 ° F, because that at least 15 seconds.

Fish and all other foods should be cooked at least 63 ° C/145.4 °F for at least 15 seconds.

Pork and ground beef, chef until lock reach more than 69 ° C/156 ° F because that at least 15 seconds.

Cooked foods should be constantly monitored come ensure they reach the right temperatures.

This phase is an extremely important in the ready of food. The complying with are the minimum temperatures and also times to cook the different species of products:

Poultry and stuffed meats: in the thickest component must with a minimum temperature of 74 ° C/165.2 ° F, for at least 15 seconds.

Fish and all other foods items should it is in cooked at least 63 ° C/145.4 ° F for at least 15 seconds.

Pork and ground beef, chef until castle reach more than 69 ° C/156 ° F for at the very least 15 seconds.

Be certain to inspect these temperatures on the thickest or solidest part of the food.

Cooked foods items should be constantly monitored come ensure they with the ideal temperatures.

Food & Beverage Outlets


Portion castle so as to reduce the volume.

Insert this containers into ice and water baths.

When the food reaches 20ºC/68 ° F, you have to refrigerate it there is no forgetting come cover the container.

Make certain they with 4 ° C/39.2 ° F in the refrigerator.

Never cool to room temperature.

This process should no last more than four hours.

All refrigerators and freezers should be equipped through an interior thermometer and an exterior monitoring machine to facilitate and make an ext efficient the monitoring of temperatures.

Hot foods that you prepare and also that you will not consume or use instantly should be chilled under the complying with procedure:

Portion them to mitigate the volume and place castle in shallow containers or of smaller sized capacity.

Insert these containers right into ice and water baths, ensuring the this mixture consists at least two-thirds the the container; stirs the contents frequently, measuring the temperature indigenous time come time.

When the food will 20ºC/68 ° F, you should refrigerate it there is no forgetting to cover the container.

Make sure they with 4 ° C/39.2 ° F in the refrigerator.

Never cool come room temperature.

This procedure should no last much more than four hours.

All refrigerators and also freezers need to be equipped v an interior thermometer as well as an outside monitoring maker to facilitate and make an ext efficient the monitoring of temperatures.


Remove the from the refrigerator.Reheat immediately: 74 ° C/165.2 ° F because that at the very least 15 seconds.The reheated food have to be served maximum in two hours.Separate the food right into smaller portions, come comply with this time.Never pass food directly from the refrigerator to the hot table or water bath.


When you room going to usage some all set food that you have actually under refrigeration, you must follow the adhering to rules:Remove that from the refrigerator.Immediately reheat it easily to at least 74 ° C/165.2 ° F, for at the very least 15 seconds, even if it is in an oven, oven or iron.The reheated food should be offered maximum in two hours.In some instances you will need to separate the food into smaller portions to satisfy this time.Never happen food straight from the refrigerator to the hot table or water bath; these devices are only offered to store food warm, not to warmth them.

Food ready to Serve

Keep warm foods items at temperatures over 60ºC/140 ° F.Keep the containers covered, and often mix the materials to standardize the temperature the the food.Cold foods should be preserved to a best of 7ºC/ 44.6 ° F.Sauces, dressings, creams and the prefer that are offered in portions, should comply v the instructions of the manufacturer for its conservation and once offered you have to discard them.During preparation, food should pass v the Temperature risk Zone as easily as feasible and as few times as possible.

Hot foods items that are prepared to be served either in the buffet or in the kitchen, such together soups, consommés, meats, etc., should be retained at over 60ºC/140 °F. To attain this you need to verify that the water bathtub is properly mounted or that the Chaffers have adequate amount of warm water and alcohol, and they continue to be on. The is also important the you try to store the containers covered, and also often mix the components to standardize the temperature the the food. Now, cold foodstuffs that are all set to serve as fruits, dairy, dressings, cold meats, sauces, etc., need to be kept at best 7ºC/44.6 °F. The above is accomplished if the container in which you have actually your food, is well mounted in a bath of ice and also water, or frappe ice. Sauces, dressings, creams, jams, butter, vegetable pastes and the favor that are offered in portions, must comply v the manufacturer’s instructions because that its preservation and once offered you have to discard them. During preparation, food must pass through the Temperature peril Zone as conveniently as feasible and as few times together possible.


Your hands must not touch the surfaces that will contact the food or the mouth the the commensal.

Handle cutlery, glasses and also plates in such a means that your fingers perform not take the parts that will be in call with the food or the mouth the the diner.

Prepared foods that are displayed for sale, you must keep them in ~ the temperatures indicated above.

When serving ice you must use ladles or tongs effectively washed and also disinfected, never straight with your hands or glasses.

The ice you usage to cool food need to never be used for human consumption.

Once you have actually prepared the food, the is time to serve them come the diners. When serving, remember these good Service Practices:

Your hands must not touch the surface that will have call with the food or v the mouth that the commensal.

You should manipulate the cutlery in such a way that your fingers do not take it the parts that will be in call with the food, but by the handles.

Nor must you ar your finger on parts of glasses, cups, plates, chopsticks, straws, etc., that will be in contact with the food or the mouth of the diner.

Prepared foods that are displayed for sale should be retained at the temperatures shown in Food all set to Serve, keeping them covered, and also ensuring that the surplus you did not sell on the day is discarded.

To offer the ice you need to use ladles or tongs effectively washed and disinfected, never straight with her hands or glasses.

The ice cream you usage to cool food, have to never be provided for human consumption.

V. Critical points of Food Contamination

Critical points room those stages of the procedure, locations or operations in i m sorry food is most likely to become contaminated or altered. If we control these critical points we deserve to reduce foodborne disease (FBD). In each of the establishments, these points deserve to be varied, here are the most usual ones:

Correct washing that hands and utensils as preparation prior to handling food (never work-related with rusty utensils).

Wash and disinfect the food we are going come use.

Wash hands before peeling or cut food.

Work v clean and disinfected surfaces.

Separate raw foodstuffs from cooked foods; this also way making use of different utensils for this kind of food such together knives and cutting boards.

In general, once mixing food, we have to not perform it v hands yet use spatulas or tongs. If we room going to use the hands, for instance to knead, the hands must be perfectly clean.

In the last preparation that the food, the dealing with of temperature and also time is critical.

Store foods refrigerated at less than 4 ° C/39.2 °F.

Heat the minimum quantity of food to 60 ° C/140 °F to get rid of microbes.

Calculate fair amounts that will be provided in a short duration of time, staying clear of overheating and also contaminating food.

Consider just how long a food is walking to be at hazard of microbial multiplication risk, need to never be better than 4 hours.

Serve food through clean utensils, hygienic actions visible come consumers and also a exactly presentation.

Use sufficient concentrations of disinfectants for sanitizing and also sanitizing utensils and surfaces.

Properly label foods to her receipt and also before storing them.

Foods an ideal for consumption

Management of an excellent hygiene techniques at every stages of the food chain.Suitable organoleptic characteristics (taste, smell, texture, color).Absence of pathogenic microbe or their toxins.Free of chemistry substances the are international to their herbal composition or that space not specifically permitted.

A food taken into consideration fit because that consumption, must meet the adhering to requirements:Management of good hygiene practices at every stages that the food chain.Suitable organoleptic qualities (taste, smell, texture, color).Absence of pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins.Free of chemical substances that are foreign to their natural composition or that are not expressly permitted.

VI. Establishment problems Where Food is Prepared

Location of the place of preparation and environment.Design and also hygiene the the facilities.Construction materials.Lighting and also ventilation.Cleaning and also disinfection.

In the establishment where food is prepared, all necessary measures need to be take away to mitigate the likelihood of air pollution in food. These techniques are recognized as great manufacturing practices and also must be known by the food handler.Location of ready location and environment: away from garbage dumps, sewer streams, toxic manufacturing sites and also other resources of pollution.

Design and hygiene that the facilities: that is desirable that over there be physical separation in between the locations where raw materials are handled and the food preparation areas, also, in between hot and also cold cooking, amongst other examples. If that is not possible that the separation is physical, at the very least it should be functional. For example: functioning at different times raw raw materials and also ready-to-eat foods. Top top the other hand, the is important to have actually records of cleaning of all locations of kitchen and also of rest and recreation of employees. These reports should be signed and verified v the person responsible for each transition to watch that the cleaning jobs are being carried out in all areas.

Materials the construction: All materials used in floors, walls and also ceilings where food is prepared need to be smooth and impermeable, easily accessible for easy cleaning and also disinfection. No cracks, cracks or draft that permit buildup of dust or bacteria.Lighting and ventilation: Lamps with security to avoid that in situation of breakage, pieces of glass fall to the food. Good ventilation is crucial to controlling: 1. The internal temperature, 2. Dust, 3. Smoke, and 4. Excessive vapor. Doors and windows assist with ventilation and should it is in made that smooth materials, easy to clean, and also in addition, home windows must have mosquito nets to protect against the entry of dust, insects and other pests.

Cleaning and Disinfection: This occupational is an essential in the hygienic dealing with of food. Daily cleaning and also disinfection of:Process locations (walls, floors, ceilings).Food contact surfaces (tables, containers, utensils).These procedures should be carried out in ~ the end of the preparation tasks, before their initiation, and in some cases during the process. The photographs display ideal problems of the establishment

Storage that Chemicals

Cleaning and sanitizing chemicals.Separated from food area.Maintained in great condition and also entry control.Chemicals labeled.Do not use food chemistry containers and also vice versa.MSDS safety and security data sheets.

This area have to be offered for the warehouse of chemicals used for cleaning and also disinfection the equipment and work utensils, and also for save hygiene items in the establishment. Therefore, this sector have to be separated native the food warehouse area, and will need to be retained in an excellent clean, tidy conditions, through labeled products, and in some cases kept in locked places.Empty food containers must never be provided to keep chemicals, nor must food be stored in empty containers the chemicals. A man in this for can easily lead to severe intoxication.

All chemicals used in a food sales and also service basic must have a material Safety Data Sheet referred to as MSDS. This sheets contain information around the nature of chemicals and also are crucial component of rectal safety, as it provides emergency personnel and also food handlers with procedures for using the chemistry safely.

Pest Control

Good structure conditions.Constant cleaning and also disinfection.Keep the order.Correct storage of food.Remove debris.Avoid eating pests.Prevent lock from eat waste.Prevent nesting.

To protect against the proliferation that pests the complying with points need to be followed:

1. Ensure that the structural conditions of the framework (buildings, furniture, windows) are in optimal conditions.2. Constantly lug out cleaning and disinfection that the workplace.3. Save food properly.4. Dispose of waste properly in the workplace.5. Prevent feasible pests native entering the workplace, stop leaving open up doors and also windows, using mosquito nets, and drainage grids.6. Prevent pets from feeding ~ above garbage and leftover food.7. Prevent pests from nesting in the workplace. To carry out this, friend must maintain order and also cleanliness at all times, including in places that are not seen, such as behind and below the freezers.

Pest control

Free from insects, rodents and also other pests with regulate measures:Devices (Traps)Eliminate sanctuary conditionsKeep infrastructure clean and repair damage.

Food facility should it is in kept free of insects, rodents and also other pests. Any time one insect, rodent and other pests are observed, they need to be controlled to eliminate their presence.

To maintain a pest-free environment, there need to be regimen inspections of incoming food and also facility shipments, both inside and out. Once pests room observed, control methods, such as traps and other method of insect control, should be implemented. All shelter conditions must be eliminated.

It is necessary to clean up any type of spills as quickly as possible as they tempt pests. Drains should likewise be maintained clean and also damage must be reported together holes in the walls so they have the right to be repaired. This will stop pests from nesting in this areas.

VII. Normative Aspects

Remember: in our hand is the wellness of all.

Good behavior for hygienic food handling should be used primarily together a responsible attitude and also as the safest method of avoiding us, our family members or our clients from ending up being ill. However, authorities everywhere have sanitary regulations the make that compulsory to observe standards related to the hygienic management of food: in the instance of establishments that produce, procedure or distribute food, this standards refer to the fulfillment of what is known as the great Manufacturing Practices, which should be construed as preventive procedures of straightforward and habitual application. In the situation of manipulators, these standards establish requirements to exercise the role of food handler, among others, the need to conduct a training course in hygienic food handling.

Assimilating and also putting into practice knowledge for the prevention of illness caused by poor food handling at every stages of processing, will help you not just prevent these diseases but also avoid food waste by change or putrefaction. Gift able come hygienically take care of food, will be one indispensable need to practice your trade.

People who in some means manipulate food, affect the health of the community. It is mostly their duty that the food they prepare and serve is in optimal condition for your consumption. The is vital to take it hygienic actions at every action of the operation, in the an option of the place where the food is bought, in the reception, in the adequate storage, during the preparation and then in the distribution and delivery come the final consumers.

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