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How much milk is developed each year worldwide, in billions the gallons? Is margarine a type of butter? Learn an ext about the ABCs of dairy products in this quiz.

Cow’s milk (bovine species) is by far the principal type used transparent the world. Other animals utilized for your milk production incorporate buffalo (in India, China, Egypt, and also the Philippines), goats (in the Mediterranean countries), reindeer (in north Europe), and sheep (in southern Europe). This section focuses on the handling of cow’s milk and milk assets unless otherwise noted. In general, the processing an innovation described because that cow’s milk deserve to be successfully applied to milk acquired from other species.

In the at an early stage 1800s the average dairy cow produced less than 1,500 litres of milk annually. With advancements in animal nutrition and selective breeding, one cow currently produces an average of 6,500 litres of milk a year, through some cows producing up to 10,000 litres. The Holstein-Friesian cow to produce the greatest volume, but other each other such as Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, and Jersey, while creating less milk, are recognized for providing milk that contains higher fat, protein, and total solids.


Properties of milk

Nutrient composition

Although milk is a liquid and most often thought about a drink, the contains in between 12 and 13 percent full solids and also perhaps must be regarded as a food. In contrast, numerous “solid” foods, such as tomatoes, carrots, and lettuce, save on computer as tiny as 6 percent solids.

Many determinants influence the composition of milk, including breed, hereditary constitution of the separation, personal, instance cow, period of the cow, stage of lactation, interval in between milkings, and also certain an illness conditions. Since the last milk drawn at each milking is richest in fat, the completeness of milking additionally influences a sample. In general, the form of feed just slightly influence the composition of milk, yet feed of poor quality or inadequate quantity reasons both a short yield and also a low portion of full solids. Current feeding programs utilize computer modern technology to accomplish the greatest performance from each animal.

The composition of milk varies amongst mammals, mostly to meet growth rates the the separation, personal, instance species. The proteins included within the mom milk space the significant components contributing to the development rate of the young animals. Person milk is relatively low in both proteins and minerals compared with that of cows and also goats.

Goat milk has about the same nutrient composition as cow’s milk, yet it differs in numerous characteristics. Goat milk is totally white in colour since all the beta-carotene (ingested from feed) is convert to vitamin A. The fat globules space smaller and therefore continue to be suspended, for this reason the cream does not rise and mechanical homogenization is unnecessary. Goat milk curd creates into small, light flakes and is more easily digested, much like the curd developed from human milk. That is frequently prescribed because that persons who space allergic come the protein in cow’s milk and also for part patients afflicted through stomach ulcers.

Sheep milk is affluent in nutrients, having actually 18 percent full solids (5.8 percent protein and also 6.5 percent fat). Reindeer milk has actually the highest possible level that nutrients, v 36.7 percent complete solids (10.3 percent protein and 22 percent fat). These high-fat, high-protein milks are great ingredients because that cheese and also other made dairy products.

See more: How Much Is One Scoop Of Protein Powder, How Much Whey Protein Should I Drink In A Day

The major components of milk space water, fat, protein, carbohydrate (lactose), and also minerals (ash). However, there are countless other highly essential micronutrients such together vitamins, essential amino acids, and trace minerals. Indeed, more than 250 chemistry compounds have actually been figured out in milk. The table shows the composition of fresh fluid milk and other dairy products.


Nutrient ingredient of dairy products (per 100 g) dairy product energy (kcal) water (g) protein (g) fat (g) carbohydrate (g) cholesterol (mg) vitamin A (IU) riboflavin (mg) calcium (mg)
*Fortified with vitamin A.
**Low moisture, component skim.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, composition of Foods, farming Handbook no. 8-1.
fresh whole milk 61 88 3.29 3.34 4.66 14 126 0.162 119
new low-fat milk* 50 89 3.33 1.92 4.80 8 205 0.165 122
fresh skim milk* 35 91 3.41 0.18 4.85 2 204 0.140 123
evaporated milk 134 74 6.81 7.56 10.04 29 243 0.316 261
evaporated skim milk* 78 79 7.55 0.20 11.35 4 392 0.309 290
sweetened condensed milk 321 27 7.91 8.70 54.40 34 328 0.416 284
nonfat dry milk* 358 4 35.10 0.72 52.19 18 2,370 1.744 1,231
butter 717 16 0.85 81.11 0.06 219 3,058 0.034 24
ice cream cream (vanilla) 201 61 3.50 11.00 23.60 44 409 0.240 128
ice milk (vanilla) 139 68 3.80 4.30 22.70 14 165 0.265 139
sherbet (orange) 138 66 1.10 2.00 30.40 5 76 0.068 54
frozen yogurt, nonfat 128 69 3.94 0.18 28.16 2 7 0.265 134
buttermilk 40 90 3.31 0.88 4.79 4 33 0.154 116
cake cream 214 71 3.16 20.96 4.27 44 790 0.149 116
yogurt, plain, low-fat 63 85 5.25 1.55 7.04 6 66 0.214 183
yogurt, fruit, low-fat 102 74 4.37 1.08 19.05 4 46 0.178 152
blue cheese 353 42 21.40 28.74 2.34 75 721 0.382 528
Brie cheese 334 48 20.75 27.68 0.45 100 667 0.520 184
Cheddar cheese 403 37 24.90 33.14 1.28 105 1,059 0.375 721
head cheese 103 79 12.49 4.51 2.68 15 163 0.163 60
cream cheese 349 54 7.55 34.87 2.66 110 1,427 0.197 80
mozzarella cheese** 280 49 27.47 17.12 3.14 54 628 0.343 731
Parmesan cheese, grated 456 18 41.56 30.02 3.74 79 701 0.386 1,376
Emmentaler (Swiss) cheese 376 37 28.43 27.54 3.38 92 845 0.365 961