4 avoiding Foodborne IllnessFood-handling and Storage Procedures

Proper food handling and also storage have the right to prevent many foodborne illnesses. In order because that pathogens to thrive in food, specific conditions need to be present. By controlling the environment and also conditions, also if potentially harmful bacteria are existing in the unprepared or raw food, they will not be able to survive, grow, and multiply, bring about illness.

You are watching: Pathogens are likely to grow well in a meat stew that is

There are six factors that influence bacterial growth, which deserve to be described by the mnemonic FATTOM:


Each that these components contributes come bacterial growth in the adhering to ways:

Food: Bacteria require food to survive. For this reason, moist, protein-rich foods items are an excellent potential sources of bacter growth.Acid: Bacteria execute not thrive in acidic environments. This is why acidic foods like lemon juice and also vinegar perform not assistance the growth of bacteria and can be supplied as preservativesTemperature: most bacteria will thrive rapidly in between 4°C and also 60°C (40°F and 140°F). This is referred to as the danger region (see the section listed below for much more information ~ above the hazard zone).Time: Bacteria need time to multiply. When little numbers of bacteria are present, the danger is typically low, but extended time v the right problems will permit the bacteria come multiply and increase the hazard of contaminationOxygen: There space two species of bacteria. Aerobic bacteria require oxygen to grow, so will certainly not multiply in an oxygen-free atmosphere such together a vacuum-packaged container. Anaerobic bacteria will only grow in oxygen-free environments. Food that has been improperly processed and then stored at room temperature can be at threat from anaerobic bacteria. A common example is a product comprise harmful Clostridium botulinum (botulism-causing) bacteria that has actually been improperly processed throughout canning, and also then is consumed without any type of further cooking or reheating.Moisture: Bacteria require moisture come survive and also will thrive rapidly in moist foods. This is why dry and also salted foodstuffs are at lower risk of gift hazardous.Identifying potentially Hazardous foods (PHFs)

Foods that have actually the FATTOM problems are taken into consideration potentially hazardous foodstuffs (PHFs). PHFs space those foods that are thought about perishable. That is, they will certainly spoil or “go bad” if left in ~ room temperature. PHFs are foodstuffs that support the expansion or survive of disease-causing bacteria (pathogens) or foods items that might be contaminated by pathogens.

Generally, a food is a PHF if it is:

Of animal origin such as meat, milk, eggs, fish, shellfish, poultry (or if the contains any of this products)Of plant origin (vegetables, beans, fruit, etc.) that has been heat-treated or cookedAny of the raw sprouts (bean, alfalfa, radish, etc.)Any cooked starch (rice, pasta, etc.)Any form of soya protein (soya milk, tofu, etc.)

Table 2 identifies usual foods as either PHF or non-PHF.

Table 2. Usual PHF and non-PHFsPHFNon-PHF
Chicken, beef, pork, and other meatsBeef jerky
Pastries filled with meat, cheese, or creamBread
Cooked riceUncooked rice
Fried onionsRaw onions
Opened can be ~ of meat, vegetables, etc.Unopened can be ~ of meat, vegetables, etc. (as long as they are not significant with “Keep Refrigerated”)
TofuUncooked beans
Coffee creamersCooking oil
Fresh garlic in oilFresh garlic
Fresh or cooked eggsPowdered eggs
Dry soup mix v water addedDry soup mix
The danger Zone

One that the many important determinants to think about when handling food properly is temperature. Table 3 lists the most temperatures come be mindful of when dealing with food.

Table 3. Necessary temperatures to rememberCelsiusFahrenheitWhat happens?
100°212°Water boils
60°140°Most pathogenic bacteria space destroyed. Keep hot foods above this temperature.
20°68°Food need to be cooled from 60°C come 20°C (140°F to 68°F) in ~ two hrs or less
40°Food have to be cooled from 20°C to 4°C (68°F come 40°F) within 4 hours or less
32°Water freezes
–18°Frozen food have to be stored at −18°C (0°F) or below
Figure 1. Danger Zone Chart, provided with permission indigenous BC center for disease Control (BCCDC).

The variety of temperature indigenous 4°C and also 60°C (40°F and 140°F) is well-known as the danger zone, or the selection at which most pathogenic bacteria will grow and multiply.

Time-temperature regulate of PHFs

Pathogen growth is regulated by a time-temperature relationship. To death micro-organisms, food must be organized at a adequate temperature for a sufficient time. Food preparation is a scheduled process in which each of a series of constant temperature combinations deserve to be same effective. For example, when food preparation a beef roast, the microbial lethality completed at 121 minutes after it has actually reached an internal temperature that 54°C (130°F) is the exact same as if it to be cooked because that 3 minute after it had actually reached 63°C (145°F).

Table 4 show the minimum time-temperature demands to store food safe. (Other time-temperature regimens could be an ideal if it deserve to be demonstrated, with scientific data, the the regimen outcomes in a safe food.)

Table 4. Temerature regulate for PHFsCritical regulate pointType of foodTemperature
RefrigerationCold food storage, every foods.4°C (40°F) or less
FreezingFrozen food storage, all foods.−18°C (0°F) or less
FreezingParasite reduction in fish intended come be served raw, such as sushi and sashimi−20°C (−4°F) for 7 job or −35°C (−31°F) in a blast freezer for 15 hours
CookingFood mixture containing poultry, eggs, meat, fish, or various other potentially hazardous foodsInternal temperature the 74°C (165°F) because that at the very least 15 seconds
CookingRare roast beefInternal temperature the 54°C come 60°C (130°F to 140°F)
CookingMedium roast beefInternal temperature of 60°C to 65°C (140°F come 150°F)
CookingPork, lamb, veal, beef (medium-well)Internal temperature that 65°C come 69°C (150°F come 158°F)
CookingPork, lamb, veal, beef (well done)Internal temperature that 71°C (160°F)
CookingPoultryInternal temperature that 74°C (165°F) for 15 seconds
CookingStuffing in poultry74°C (165°F)
CookingGround meat (Includes chopped, ground, flaked, or minced beef, pork, or fish)70°C (158°F)
CookingEggs<1>63°C (145°F) for 15 seconds
CookingFish<2>70°C (158°F)
HoldingHot foods60°C (140°F)
CoolingAll foods60°C come 20°C (140°F to 68°F) in ~ 2 hours and 20°C come 4°C (68°F come 40°F) in ~ 4 hours
ReheatingAll foods74°C (165°F) because that at the very least 15 seconds
The height 10 List: Do’s and Don’ts

Figure 1 illustrates the top 10 not correct food-handling methods and the percentage of foodborne illnesses lock cause.

Figure 2. Optimal 10 causes of foodborne illness. Chart produced by go2HR under CC BY.

This section defines each food-handling exercise outlined in the top 10 list and also the means to prevent each problem.

1. Improper cooling

Many civilization think that as soon as a food has actually been properly cooked, every disease-causing biology (pathogens) have actually been killed. This is no true. Some pathogens can type heat-resistant spores, which have the right to survive cooking temperatures. Once the food begins cooling down and enters the danger zone, these spores start to grow and also multiply. If the food spends too much time in the hazard zone, the pathogens will rise in number come a point where the food will make human being sick. The is why the cooling process is crucial. Cooking food have to be cooled from 60°C come 20°C (140°F to 70°F) in two hrs or less, and also then from 20°C come 4°C (70°F to 40°F) in four hours or less.

Figure 3. Food Cooling Procedure, supplied with permission from BC center for disease Control (BCCDC)

Even in modern-day walk-in coolers, big cuts that meat will not cool down properly. Neither will totality poultry. Even huge pots (4 L/1 gal. Or more) the soup, stews, gravy, etc., deserve to take a job or more to cool come 4°C (40°F). However, you deserve to cool these foods down easily by utilizing one or much more of the following methods depending upon the kind of food being cooled:

Place the food in shallow pans (with the food no deeper than 5 cm/2 in.) and put the pans in the cooler.When the food is cooling, carry out not tightly cover. Act so just seals in the heat.Do not stack the shallow cooling pans throughout the cooling step. This will certainly defeat the objective of shallow panning by staying clear of cold wait from getting to the food. You may need come add an ext shelves to her cooler.Cut big cuts of meat or totality poultry into smaller or thinner portions. Then place these portions right into shallow pans for cooling.Use cooling wands or cooling sticks come cool foods quickly.Use fast cooling devices such as walk-in coolers through wire shelving and an excellent air flow. Home-style refrigerators or reach-ins execute not cool food well.Stir the food in a container inserted in an ice-water bath.Use containers that aid heat transfer, such together stainless stole or aluminum. Plastic does no transfer warm well.Use ice together an ingredient (e.g., in stews or soups).For huge pots of cook desserts (e.g., custard), divide it into serving sizes and also then cool.

2. Advance preparation

Advance preparation is the reason of plenty of food-poisoning outbreaks, usually since food has actually been improperly cooled. Often, foods items that are prepared well before serving spend too much time in the peril zone. This may occur for one or an ext of the complying with reasons:

The food is left the end at room temperature also long.The food is not heated or reheated properly (to a high sufficient temperature), or not cooled properly.The food is carried in and also out that the danger zone too plenty of times (e.g., cooked, hot held, cooled, reheated, hot held, cooled, reheated again).

To prevent troubles of advance preparation:

Try come prepare all foodstuffs for same-day use and also as nearby to serving time together possible.To prevent external contamination of foods prepared in advance, cover lock tightly after ~ they have been correctly cooled.Reheat leftovers only once. If leftovers space not consumed after being reheated, throw them out.For foodstuffs prepared and held refrigerated in the cooler for more than 24 hours, note the date of preparation and also a “serve by” date. Generally, PHFs must be thrown out if not provided within 3 days from date they to be made.If you need to prepare foods items in advance, be certain you properly cool and refrigerate them.

3. Infected person

Many people carry pathogens what on or in your bodies without knowing it—in your gut, in their nose, on your hands, in their mouth, and in other warm, moist places. People who space carrying pathogens frequently have no outward indicators of illness. However, people with symptom of condition (diarrhea, fever, vomiting, jaundice, sore throat v a fever, hand infections, etc.) space much an ext likely to spread out pathogens come food.

Another difficulty is that pathogens have the right to be present in the cooked and cooled food that, if given sufficient time, can still grow. These pathogens main point slowly yet they can eventually reach numbers whereby they deserve to make world sick. This method that foods items that are all set improperly, countless days before serving, yet stored effectively the entire time deserve to make people sick.

Some pathogens are an ext dangerous 보다 others (e.g., salmonella, E. Coli, campylobacter). Even if they space only current in low numbers, they can make people very sick. A food handler that is carrying these kinds of pathogens can easily spread lock to foods items – generally from their hands. Ready-to-eat food is extra dangerous. Ready-to-eat food it s okay no further food preparation after being prepared, so any pathogens will not be eliminated or regulated by cooking.

To avoid problems:

Make sure all food handlers wash their hands appropriately after any kind of job that can dirty your hands (e.g., making use of the toilet, eating, handling raw meats, blowing your nose, smoking).Food handlers v infected cuts on their hands or eight (including sores, burns, lesions, etc.) have to not manage food or tools unless the cut are appropriately covered (e.g., waterproof bandage extended with a latex gloves or finger cot).When making use of gloves or finger cots, food handlers must still wash their hands. Together well, gloves or cots have to be changed if they space soiled, have actually a hole, and also at the finish of each day.Food handlers v infection symptoms have to not handle utensils or food and should be sent home.Where possible, avoid direct hand call with food – specifically ready-to-eat foods (e.g., use plastic tools plastic or latex gloves).

4. Insufficient reheating for warm holding

Many restaurants prepare some of menu items in breakthrough or usage leftovers in their hot hold devices the following day. In both cases, the foods items travel v the danger zone once they are cooled because that storage and also again as soon as they space reheated.

Foods the are hot held prior to serving are specifically vulnerable come pathogens. In enhancement to travelling with the risk zone twice, also in effectively operating hot organize units, the food is close to the temperature that will enable pathogens come grow.

To avoid problems:

Do not usage hot organize units to reheat food. They are not designed because that this purpose. Instead, swiftly reheat to 74°C (165°F) (and organize the food at the temperature because that at the very least 15 seconds prior to putting the in the hot hold unit. This will certainly kill any pathogens that may have actually grown during the cool-down step and also the reheat step.If using straight heat (stove top, oven, etc.), the temperature that the reheated food must reach at least 74°C (165°F) because that at the very least 15 seconds within 2 hours. Store a thermometer handy to examine the temperature of the food.If using a microwave, rotate or row the food at the very least once during the reheat step, as microwaves warmth unevenly. Together well, the food must be heated come at the very least 74°C (165°F) and also then stand spanned for 2 minutes after ~ reheating before including to the hot hold unit. The snapping and also crackling sounds comes from food gift reheated in a microwave do not median the food is hot.

5. Improper warm holding

Hot host units room meant to store hot foods at 60°C (140°F) or hotter. In ~ or above this temperature, pathogens will not grow. However, a wrong in using the hot organize unit can result in foodstuffs being organized in the super peril zone – in between 20°C and 49°C (70°F and also 120°F), temperatures at i beg your pardon pathogens grow very quickly.

To stop problems:

Make certain the hot hold unit is working effectively (e.g., heating facets are not charred out; water is not as well low in heavy steam tables; the thermostat is properly set so food stays at 60°C (140°F) or hotter) examine it everyday with a thermometer.Put only currently hot (74°C/165°F) foodstuffs into the hot hold unit.Preheat the hot hold unit come at the very least 60°C (140°F) before you start putting hot foodstuffs into it.Do not use the hot organize unit come reheat cold foods. That is not designed because that or qualified of law this rapidly.After the having lunch or dinner rush, execute not turn off the heat in the hot hold unit and then leave the food over there to cool. This is very dangerous. When you do this, the food does no cool down. It stays hot in the super peril zone and also lets pathogens prosper quickly. Foodstuffs in hot hold units should be taken the end of the units after the enjoy the meal time is over and also cooled ideal away.

6. Contaminated life food or ingredient

We understand that numerous raw foodstuffs often save pathogens, yet specific foods are often served raw. While part people believe these foodstuffs served raw space “good for you,” the truth is that they have always been danger to serve or eat raw. Some examples include:

Raw oysters offered in the shellRaw eggs in particular recipes (e.g., Caesar salad, eggnog made from life eggs)Rare hamburgerSushi/sashimiSteak tartare

These foodstuffs have caused countless food-poisoning outbreaks. Always remember: you can not tell if a food consists of pathogens simply by look, taste, or smell.

To protect against problems:

Buy every your foods items or ingredient from approved suppliers.If available, buy foodstuffs or ingredients from companies who additionally have food security plans for your operations.Where possible, usage processed or pasteurized options (e.g., pasteurized liquid eggs).Never serve these varieties of foods items to high-risk client (e.g., seniors, young children, human being in bad health, people in hospitals or nursing homes).

7. Unsafe source

Foods native approved resources are much less likely come contain high levels of pathogens or other develops of contamination. Approved resources are those service providers that are inspected for cleanliness and safety by a government food inspector. Foodstuffs supplied native unreliable or disreputable sources, while being cheaper, may contain high levels of pathogens that can reason many food-poisoning outbreaks.

Fly-by-night carriers (trunk sales) regularly do not care if the product is safe to offer to you, however approved service providers do! as well, many fly-by-night companies have obtained their product illegal (e.g., close up door shellfish fisheries, rustled cattle, poached game and fish) and often do not have the devices to appropriately process, handle, store, and transport the food safely.

Of certain concern is seafood indigenous unapproved sources. Seafood, specifically shellfish, indigenous unapproved sources deserve to be heavily contaminated with pathogens or poisons if they have actually been harvest from closed areas.

To stop problems:

Buy her food and ingredients indigenous approved sources only. If you space not certain a supplier has actually been approved, call your local environmental health officer. That or she can find out for you.Do not take the possibility of causing a food-poisoning outbreak by make the efforts to save a few dollars. Remember, her reputation is ~ above the line.

8. Use of leftovers

Using leftovers has actually been the reason of numerous outbreaks that food poisoning due to the fact that of wrong cooling and also reheating (of “hot” leftovers). Leftovers that space intended to be served hot pass through the hazard zone twice (during the early stage cooling that the warm food and when reheating). Those leftovers intended come be served without reheating, or together an ingredient in other foods (e.g., sandwich filler), go with the peril zone during cooling and also then, as soon as being prepared and also portioned, frequently stay in the hazard zone for another long period. The moment in the hazard zone to add up uneven the food is easily cooled and also then easily reheated (if being offered hot), or preserved cold until serving (if no being served hot).

Contamination can additionally occur through leftover foods items when they room stored in the cooler. Improperly save leftovers have the right to accidentally be contaminated by raw foods items (e.g., blood dripping from a greater shelf).

To protect against problems:

Reheat leftovers just once. Throw out any leftovers that have already been reheated once.Do not mix leftover foodstuffs with new foods.Be certain to monitor the suitable cooling and also reheating measures when taking care of leftovers. This are vital control points.Cool leftovers in uncovered containers different from any kind of raw foods. ~ they space cooled, cover them tightly.

9. Cross-contamination

You deserve to expect details foods to contain pathogens, particularly raw meat, life poultry, and raw seafood. Use excessive caution when you lug these foodstuffs into her kitchen. Cross-contamination happens once something that can cause illness (pathogens or chemicals) is coincidentally put into a food wherein not formerly found. This have the right to include, because that example, pathogens from raw meats acquiring into ready-to-eat foodstuffs like deli meats. The can also include nuts (which some civilization are an extremely allergic to) getting into a food that does not typically have nuts (e.g., tomato sauce).

To avoid problems:

Use different cutting boards, separate cleaning cloths, knives/utensils, sinks, preparation areas, etc., for raw and for ready-to-eat foods. Otherwise, wash every one of these items with detergent and also sanitize them through bleach in between use.Use different storage areas for raw and also ready-to-eat foods. Constantly store ready-to-eat foodstuffs on separate shelves and over raw foods. Save dry foods above wet foods.Prepare ready-to-eat foods at the start of the day prior to the raw foodstuffs are prepared.After handling raw foods, always wash your hands properly prior to doing something else.Keep clean everything or clean cloths in a container of new bleach systems (30 mL/1 oz. The bleach per 4 L/1 gal. The water) as soon as not in use.Use clean utensils, no your hands, to handle cooked or ready-to-eat foods.If a customer indicates a food allergy, follow all the same steps to protect against cross contamination and also use different or freshly sanitized tools and utensils to prepare food because that the individual with the allergy.

10. Poor cooking

Proper food preparation is among the best method of making certain your operation does not reason a food-poisoning outbreak. Suitable cooking kills all pathogens (except spores) or at least reduces your numbers come a suggest where they cannot make civilization sick. Inadequate cooking is often done by accident: because that example, food preparation still-frozen poultry or meat; attempting to cook a stuffed bird using the exact same time and temperature together an unstuffed bird; making use of an inexperienced cook.

See more: At The Drop Of A Hat Origin, History Of At The Drop Of A Hat

To protect against problems:

Don’t rely on cooking times alone. Inspect the internal temperature the the food being cooked.For huge cuts that meat or huge batches the food, examine the temperature in numerous spots.Be extra careful when food preparation partially frozen foods. There can be cold point out in the food that space not appropriately cooked. The normal cooking time will have to be increased.When grilling or frying meat, chef until the juices operation clear. Cook fish until it flakes easily. Make thin, no thick, hamburgers.Image descriptions

Figure 1 photo description:

At 100°C (or 212°F), water boils. Above 74°C (or 165°F), bacteria die, although spores and toxins may survive. Food the is gift cooked or reheated should hit 74°C (or 165°F). You have the right to hold hot food for service at 60°C (or 140°F). In between 4°C and also 60°C (or 40°F and also 140°F) is the “Danger Zone.” keep food the end of this temperature variety because bacteria will certainly multiply rapidly. In between 0°C and also 4°C (or 32°F and also 40°F), many bacteria will survive however will no multiply quickly. Water freezes in ~ 0°C (or 32°F). In between 0°C and −18°C (or 0°F and also 32°F), most bacterial will survive yet not grow. Frozen food is stored at −18°C (or 0°F).