The stuff of life is amazingly diverse and also complex, yet it is all based on combinations of simple biological molecules. Biological molecules are often made from chain & rings of carbon. This molecular structures can be represented by "stick drawings" that present the component atom (e.g., C, H, N, O because that carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and also oxygen respectively) and show the bonds between them as dashes. A solitary dash ( - ) represents a solitary bond, and a dual dash (=) represents a dual bond.
You are watching: Simple sugars contain only carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms.
Note that some typical "groups" are depicted without mirroring the bonds in between them. For example, the hydroxyl group (-OH) is composed of a hydrogen atom external inspection to one oxygen atom:
The hydoxyl team will frequently be external inspection to a carbon atom in this fashion:
And this structure could be found, because that example, as part of a glucose molecule, portrayed below.
This molecule the the street glucose is composed of 6 carbon atoms bonded together as a chain with additional atoms that oxygen and hydrogen. Keep in mind that the previous structure (a carbon come which two hydrogens and one hydroxyl group are bound) is located at the bottom the this glucose chain whereby it is written making use of the notation CH2OH.
This glucose chain develops a ring in aqueous solutions, e.g., in human body fluids, as presented below.
Fructose is an additional sugar that additionally has 6 carbons, 12 hydrogens, and also 6 oxygen atoms. However, the arrangement of the atoms is different, and this provides it much sweeter than glucose and additionally affects its ability to integrate with other molecules.
Another vital theme is that single units of organic molecules (monomers) deserve to join to type increasingly facility molecules (polymers). For example, two monosaccharide sugars can also become bound with each other chemically to kind a disaccharide. Sucrose is the disaccharide in typical sugar that we buy in ~ the grocery store store. The framework of sucrose is presented below.
Polysaccharides: Starch, Glycogen, and also Cellulose
Glucose and also fructose are instances of monosaccharides, meaning they consist of a single sugar unit, if sucrose is an instance of a disaccharide. However, sugar units deserve to be external inspection or linked together to kind polysaccharides, i beg your pardon consist of many sugars connected together to type extensive chains of sugars. Tree store power as starch, which is composed of an extremely long chain of glucose attached together.
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Animals store energy as glycogen, which consists of much more highly branched chain of glucose. Collectively, sugars, starch, and also glycogen are recognize as carbohydrates, and also they are an important source of moving energy.
Cellulose is yet another polysaccharide created from glucose. Cellulose is written of unbranched, parallel chains of glucose. A crucial feature is that the chain bond to one another to form strong fibers that offer a structure purpose. People do not have actually the enzymes necessary to break the bond in cellulose, and also any cellulose us ingest passes v our digestive systems. It is a significant component the what we describe as diet "fiber."