Parasympathetic ganglia room the autonomic ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous device that lie close to or in ~ the organs they innervate.

You are watching: The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic division.

Learning Objectives

Describe attributes of the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

Key Points

every PSNS ganglion has actually three roots: a motor root, a forgiveness root, and also a sensory root, and a variety of exiting branches. Most are small terminal ganglia or intramural ganglia, therefore due to the fact that they lie near or in ~ the organs castle innervate. The parasympathetic mechanism is described as having actually craniosacral outflow because of the place of PSNS fiber origins.

Key Terms

lacrimal gland: among a pair almond-shaped glands, one for each eye, that secrete the aqueous layer of the tear film. sympathetic root: This dead postsynaptic sorry fibers the traverse the ganglion without crossing a synapse. motor root: This dead presynaptic parasympathetic nerve fibers the terminate in the ganglion and also create synapse for the postsynaptic yarn to take trip to their target organs. sensory root: The proximal finish of a dorsal afferent nerve that is attached to the spinal cord. parasympathetic: Relating come the part of the autonomic nervous mechanism that inhibits or opposes the results of the sympathetic worried system.


Nerves that supply parasympathetic yarn to the parasympathetic ganglia of the head include the oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion); the facial nerve (pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion); the glossopharyngeal nerve (otic ganglion); the vagus nerve (no called ganglion); and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (no ganglion).

Parasympathetic ganglia are the autonomic ganglia the the parasympathetic worried system, blue fibers). Many are little terminal ganglia or intramural ganglia, therefore because they lie close to or in ~ (respectively) the organs lock innervate.

The exceptions room the four paired parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. This paired ganglia supply every parasympathetic innervation to the head and neck: ciliary ganglion (spincter pupillae, ciliary muscle), pterygopalatine ganglion (lacrimal gland, glands of nasal cavity), submandibular ganglion (submandibular and also sublingual glands), and otic ganglion (parotid gland).


Nerve innervation the the autonomic worried system: The parasympathetic concerned system, shown in blue, is a division of the autonomic concerned system.

Each has actually three roots entering the ganglion (motor, sympathetic, and sensory roots) and a variable variety of exiting branches.

The motor root carries presynaptic parasympathetic nerve yarn (general visceral efferent fibers) the terminate in the ganglion by developing a synapse because that the postsynaptic fibers traveling come target organs. The sympathetic root carries postsynaptic sympathetic yarn (general visceral efferent fibers) that traverse the ganglion without producing a synapse. The sensory root carries general sensory fibers (general somatic afferent fibers) that also do not produce a synapse in the ganglion.

Some ganglia additionally carry distinct sensory fibers (special visceral afferent) for taste sensation.

The nerves the supply parasympathetic fibers to the parasympathetic ganglia that the head incorporate the oculomotor nerve (ciliary ganglion), the face nerve (pterygopalatine ganglion, submandibular ganglion), the glossopharyngeal nerve (otic ganglion), the vagus nerve, and also the pelvic splanchnic nerves.

Because that its location, the parasympathetic device is commonly referred to as having actually craniosacral outflow, in comparison to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have actually thoracolumbar outflow.

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Parasympathetic ganglia of the head: The parasympathetic division has craniosacral outflow, an interpretation that the neurons start at the cranial nerves (CN3, CN7, CN9, CN10) and the sacral spinal cord (S2–S4). Pre- and post-ganglionic fibers and targets room depicted.

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