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As farmers thrust westward into Texas, Kansas, and other western states and territories after ~ the civil War, they proficient some difficult times. To accomplish these problems they started to type organizations such as the Farmers" Alliance. Besides encountering such neutral problems as drought, farmers knowledgeable low commodity prices, high freight rates, high attention rates, and also other difficulties. They to be very an important of the larger corporations, specifically the railroads. This conditions and also complaints were familiar to farmer in Indian Territory and to those who rushed into Oklahoma region in 1889 and also later.

The Farmers" Alliance was very first organized in Texas in the mid-1870s and soon spread out to other states and also territories in the South and Midwest. Among the group"s main goals to be to form cooperatives. Farmers collection up cooperatively owned retail stores and marketing organizations. The idea to be to provide producers an ext influence in buying their supplies and marketing their products.

The Farmers" Alliance to be very strong in Texas and Kansas. Lying between these 2 states, Oklahoma and also Indian territories, not surprisingly, readily available alliance organizers an opportunity. In 1889 the alliance was organized by "outlanders," or non–American Indian farmers who had moved right into the territory. The organization developed a variety of cooperatively own businesses and also published its very own newspaper, the Alliance Courier, in Ardmore. However, the participating enterprises soon failed since of lack of capital, poor management, and insufficient patron support. With the fail of the cooperatives and the increase of the Populist Party many of the Alliance members change their emphasis to politics.

The settlement of Oklahoma territory came also late because that the Farmers" Alliance to have actually much impact among farmers. Through 1890, as soon as the territorial federal government was organized, the main political problems were totally free homes and also statehood. However, farmers were strongly interested in the cultivation demands the the Populists. The farmers" movement in both territories slowly blended right into the bigger farmer-protest tasks that coalesced right into Populism at the nationwide level. Farmers demanded free and countless coinage of silver- to inflate the currency and also raise farm prices, federal government ownership of the railroads, taxation of income, abolition of nationwide banks, barred of extraterrestrial land ownership, and also other reforms.

Although the Farmers" Alliance in the twin Territories served as a background for the Populist movement, its more important influence may have been top top the subsequent company of the Farmers" Educational and also Cooperative Union in 1902, which, amongst other objectives, strongly sustained the formation of farmer cooperatives. Overall, however, the Farmers" Alliance did not play a far-reaching role in Oklahoma"s protest history.

Gilbert C. Fite

See also: AMERICAN agricultural MOVEMENT, FARMING


Howard L. Meredith, "The "Middle Way": The Farmers" Alliance in Indian Territory, 1889–1896," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 47 (Winter 1969–70).

Theodore Saloutos, Farmer movements in the South, 1865–1933 (Berkeley: university of California Press, 1960).

Terry Paul Wilson, "The death of Populism in Oklahoma Territory," The Chronicles the Oklahoma 43 (Fall 1965).

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The following (as every The Chicago manual of Style, 17th edition) is the desired citation because that articles:Gilbert C. Fite, “Farmers" Alliance,” The Encyclopedia the Oklahoma background and Culture, https://www.ptcouncil.net/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=FA017.

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