By the end of this section, friend will:Explain the paper definition in i m sorry the republic occurred from 1828 come 1848


In 1831, the twenty-five–year-old French noble Alexis de Tocqueville checked out the joined States and Canada through a friend throughout a ten-month tour at the behest that the French monarchical government. Their main task to be to examine and also report top top the American prison system. Tocqueville accomplished his job but likewise published a seminal work on the democratic political institutions and also character that American society called Democracy in America. Although that warned that the risks of the tyranny that the majority if it did no respect minority rights, Tocqueville was especially impressed by the neighborhood self-rule, spontaneous associations, and also churches he discovered that created a healthy and balanced American civil society. Tocqueville visited the unified States throughout a time in i beg your pardon democracy was increasing, specifically for white men, and also when reformers—male, female, black, and white—were influenced to improve culture with several ethical reforms (see the Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, 1835 Primary Source).

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The Presidential choice of 1828

The presidential choice of 1828 significant a high allude in the shift to a new, more democratic era in American politics. Leading functions were play by plenty of of the exact same characters already on the nationwide stage. President john Quincy Adams, supported by his Secretary that State Henry Clay, ran versus war hero and also former senator Andrew Jackson, supported by city council Martin van Buren of new York and Vice President john C. Calhoun. The politics rivals struggled for power throughout a time of widening democracy. In 1828, the an option of victor would rest in the hand of the full population of adult white males in every state, other than South Carolina and also Virginia, thanks to the large abolition that property limitations on vote rights.

Adams failed come understand and also exploit the new realities of autonomous politics in an er of global male suffrage and greater political participation, but Jackson and also Van Buren showed remarkably adept at developing a political party. For example, Jackson supporters arranged political parties and learned to mobilize voters on the neighborhood level. They likewise succeeded in win the support of the renowned press. Van Buren, meanwhile, choreographed a an effective and reliable campaign versus Adams in Congress. Jackson’s almost mythical status as a renowned hero assisted him to fend off an individual attacks, including whispers about his violent temper and the duels he had fought, and revelations the his wife had actually still to be legally married to another man once she wed Jackson in 1791 (this situation had been resolved in 1794). Adams, in contrast, often tended to host grudges and absorb slander rather than direction it. Jackson winner a clear win by 178 electoral votes to 83.

Jackson adopted the populist picture that swept him come office, and also his inaugural ceremony symbolized the autonomous age. A White home reception ended with his followers almost sacking the White House and forcing the age-worn new president come escape through a window. One disapproving observer detailed that a huge throng that well-wishers tramped through the White home with muddy boots and also spilled their alcoholic drinks. The mob left only as soon as it to be lured exterior with ice cream and alcohol. Return the nation had certainly seen public politics demonstrations before, both angry and triumphant, the venting of well-known opinion currently permanently revolutionized the politics process.


Although over there is a tiny amount of chaos in this explicate of the White House throughout Jackson’s inauguration that does not display the devastation going ~ above inside.

American Indians and the load of Presidential Power

The Jacksonians had actually not winner on photo alone. Policy figured prominently in the 1828 election, far an ext than at any time because the war of 1812. Jackson promised to bring stability to the country volatile economy. He additionally helped present the spoils system, which increased his ability to carry out the regime of what became called the democratic Party, together he dismissed office holders native the previous government wholesale and also placed party loyalists in office. Jackson’s management also operated through an authority previously missing from government, firmly working out federal and executive power, at time in outright dispute with the hallowed heritages of states’ legal rights he otherwise embraced.

American Indians originally bore the brunt that this raw practice of power. For nearly two hundred years, the native human being of the southeastern United says had controlled to organize their own versus European encroachment. However, they had actually lost their an effective British allies ~ the war of 1812 and were significantly weakened. Moreover, v the contract of ft Jackson in 1814, the United says had forced the pliable boy chiefs that the Creek (Muscogee) come cede 22 million acres in Alabama and Georgia. Before ascending come the White House, Jackson had combated in numerous battles against American Indians and also had presided over the 1817–1818 an initial Seminole War, which caused the annexation of Florida. By the 1820s, the push on American ind to continue moving westward had actually become nearly overwhelming. Whites settled in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana by the tens of thousands. The Cherokee, motivated by the Cherokee leader Sequoyah and members of various other tribes, attempted come accommodate themselves to white supremacy by acquisition up white ways, including adopting a composed language, schools, American farming methods, division of labor between the sexes, American-style clothing, and Christianity, however to no avail. Most whites wanted not their friendship but their land, especially due to the fact that of the noodle boom developing in the Southwest.


(a) Cherokee leader Sequoyah arisen a syllabary the made reading and also writing in the Cherokee language possible. Sequoyah’s invention allowed the Cherokee country to produce a newspaper in their very own language the Cherokee Phoenix (b) This front page of the Cherokee Phoenix dates from might 21, 1828. The paper continued till 1834 and also was revived in the twentieth century.

As president, Jackson responded to push from southerly farmers by securing passage of the Indian remove Act, which the signed in may 1830. The removed Act permitted Jackson come eject American ind from your lands in the south east in return because that lands west that the Mississippi. Although your acquiescence was framed together voluntary consent, the Indians, in effect, to be compelled to move. Because that this reason, the invoice was fiercely disputed in Congress, with many northerners (and also some southerners such as representative Davey Crockett) protest to the unjust therapy it allowed. However, your objections were narrowly overruled by southerners who wanted the Indians’ land and also passed the bill by nine votes in the Senate and also only 6 in the house (see the Indian remove Act, 1830, and also Cherokee Chief man Ross’s Memorial and also Protest come Congress, 1836 Primary Source).

The Cherokee, meanwhile, attempted come resist initiatives by the state that Georgia come encroach upon your land, resulting in two instances revolving approximately the inquiry of lack sovereignty gift presented come the U.S. Can be fried Court in the at an early stage 1830s. In Cherokee country v. Georgia (1831), the Court figured out that the Cherokee people lacked standing to sue together a foreign country because it to be a “domestic dependency nation” and declined to rule on the merits of the case, conversely, in Worcester v. Georgia (1832), the Court ruled that only the federal federal government (not the states) had the strength to control relations between a indigenous Indian nation and a U.S. State and, therefore, Georgia had actually no government in Indian affairs. However, Georgia refused to follow the stimulate of the Court or avoid settlers from taking land.

At the very same time, chairman Jackson also sought come implement his own powers under the Indian remove Act to compel the American indians to move. Native 1831 come 1838, part sixty thousand people of what colonial settlers called the “Five civilized Tribes” (Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and also Seminole) were forced off the property they held, in straight violation of previous treaties, and also were pushed across the Mississippi. White charlatans robbed and also persecuted them in the process, and also their forced winter treks resulted in thousands of deaths. The culmination of the process came with the ejection the the Cherokee from your lands eastern of the Mississippi and also along the 1838 follow of Tears (see The follow of Tears Narrative). The illustration of these world west the the Mississippi had a disruptive influence amongst the people of that region, fostering conflict that would certainly persist until they, too, ended up being victims that American from the west expansion.

Tariffs and the nationwide Bank

President Jackson continued to broaden federal and executive strength in a situation precipitated when he and many northern members of conference sought come regulate abroad trade and also protect U.S. Industry. In 1828, Henry Clay assumed responsibility for guiding v Congress a protectionist tariff, the so-called Tariff the Abominations, v the support of President man Quincy Adams, until Martin valve Buren took charge and sought to usage the tariff invoice to appeal come mid-Atlantic Jacksonian voters. The tariff to be supposedly designed to against British economic prominence by put high tariffs ~ above imports indigenous that country as a way to defend (mostly northern) manufactured products from international competition. Many southern leaders, however, doubt the measure up was a clever attempt to harm the South and also undermine the college of slavery. Vice president Calhoun argued the tariff would certainly provoke retaliatory brothers tariffs top top American noodle imports native the South, i m sorry fed the brothers mills in Lancashire. Calhoun had actually reversed his previously support the tariffs together a maker for complete a national, self-sufficient economy, instead adopting what was politically expedient come win v Jackson. Due to the fact that the U.S. Noodle industry and the system of slavery were mutually dependent, the results of the tariff might be terrible for southern planters.

In 1828, Calhoun anonymously published Exposition and also Protest, in which he said that the Union to be a compact of claims that might individually decide on the constitutionality that federal regulations and nullify them (see the Is the Concurrent majority Theory Faithful to the Ideals that the Constitution? Point-Counterpoint and the John C. Calhoun, South Carolina Exposition and also Protest, 1828 Primary Source). (These principles had your roots in thomas Jefferson’s Kentucky Resolution of 1798.) In November 1832, incited in part by Calhoun, the government of southern Carolina, in convention, proclaimed the tariff nullified and unenforceable within its borders because it to be unconstitutional, and also the state invoked the rule of state sovereignty in support of its right to do so. Regardless of the widespread renowned support he enjoyed throughout the South and his basic sympathy for short tariffs, Jackson denounced nullification together treasonous and, in in march 1833, he signed a pressure Bill the Congress had passed authorizing military action against southern Carolina (see The Nullification Crisis Narrative). The very same day the pressure Bill was signed, senator Henry Clay of Kentucky aided defuse the crisis by leading Congress to take on a weaken tariff the greatly diminished the tariff duties and also induced Calhoun to ago off. However a precedent had been set that would act itself out in complete thirty years later on when the south seceded indigenous the Union. A south Carolina convention met a few days later and repealed that tariff nullification as well as the pressure Act.

The presidential election campaign of 1832 was dealt with in the paper definition of Jackson’s farming opposition to the 2nd Bank that the joined States, a stance that additional enlarged his executive power by exercising his veto power. Congress had chartered the second Bank in 1816, and the can be fried Court claimed it constitution in McCulloch v. Maryland (1819). The bank had a twenty-year charter that was early out for regeneration in 1836. Senators Henry Clay and also Daniel Webster that Massachusetts operated with financial institution president Nicholas Biddle come renew the charter early and make that an issue in the presidential election of 1832, especially since Clay was to run for president. Conference passed the recharter bill and sent it come the chairman to sign.

On July 10, 1832, however, Jackson vetoed it. (See the Andrew Jackson’s Veto the the nationwide Bank Decision point and the Andrew Jackson, financial institution Veto Message, 1832 Primary Source). He suggested that the financial institution was unconstitutional, regulated by speculators and also foreign interests, and also damaging come western and southern farmers. In ~ the exact same time, Jackson refuse to endorse Calhoun’s continuation as evil president, partly because of your differing see on the bank, and Calhoun suspect the senate chair vacated by Robert Hayne who came to be governor of southerly Carolina. That was former Secretary the State Martin valve Buren who at some point secured the democratic Party’s nomination in Calhoun’s place.

Jackson’s overwhelming election victory against National Republican candidate Henry Clay permitted him to emphasis on his campaign to destroy the Bank, which he and his supporters regarded as an naturally corrupt tool of huge moneyed interests in and also out that government. Appointing the cooperative Roger Taney as secretary the the treasury (after instead of two less malleable treasury secretaries), Jackson ceased depositing government funds in the bank of the united States, rather diverting them to a collection of so-called pet banks. Bank president Nicholas Biddle dealt with Jackson vociferously, however after year of conflict in Congress and economic destabilization, the Bank’s charter expired in 1836.


This 1833 lithograph entitled The Downfall of Mother bank applauds Jackson’s order because that the removal of commonwealth funds native the bank of the unified States. Jackson holds increase an “Order for the remove of the general public Money.” Nicholas Biddle (depicted through devil’s horns) and also his supporters scatter together the bank building falls around them.

The fall of the financial institution of the unified States corresponded with one more election year in 1836. Opposition to Jackson had actually converged roughly his supposedly imperial presidency, including his cost-free use that the presidential veto, which appeared to threaten the strength of Congress. His detractors now dubbed him King Andrew I, in ironic comparison with the autonomous excitement that had actually accompanied his early stage entry into office. Jackson, they argued, had actually contradicted the anti-aristocratic ideals the Jeffersonian America.


In this well known 1832 political cartoon entitled “King Andrew the very first ” by one unknown artist chairman Jackson is dressed in royal garb and also holds a veto post in his hand if the structure lies in tatters at his feet.

Remnants that the national Republican Party and also the smaller Anti-Masonic Party merged with Calhoun’s southern supporters and also others to type the Whig Party, therefore named because of the association with seventeenth- and eighteenth-century English anti-royalists. However, the Whigs stayed a diffuse organization in 1836. Their slate of candidates, led by wilhelm Henry Harrison, failed to muster the stamin to defeat Jackson’s chosen successor, Martin valve Buren.

Van Buren and the panic of 1837

A talented politician once recognized as the “Little Magician,” Martin valve Buren was given tiny chance to develop a effective presidency. Quickly after he gotten in office, the national economic situation staggered under the so-called scare of 1837. This catastrophe originated in the collapse of a floor bubble and the succeeding failure of countless of the banks to which Jackson had transferred funds when destined because that the financial institution of the unified States. In response, van Buren established an independent treasury and also cut federal government expenditures, however to tiny avail—the economy entered a deep recession. This setback, linked with an ongoing and also expensive military campaign to force the Seminole Indians out of Florida and also condemnations of valve Buren’s accused extravagant White house lifestyle, doomed his chances for reelection in 1840.

Whig candidate william Henry Harrison had an initial won fame as a general in the battle of 1812. Also though his father was a signer the the statements of Independence, this child of the Virginia aristocracy secured choice in 1840 as a “hard cider” and also “log cabin” man representative of common Americans. He dropped ill and died only 4 weeks right into his presidency, however, and was replaced by vice President man Tyler, also known together “His Accidency.” return an anti-Jacksonian, Tyler refused to align himself through the Whigs, that then feel betrayed and also threw him the end of the party. By the choice of 1844, in i beg your pardon Democrat James K. Polk beat Whig Henry Clay in Clay’s last bid for the presidency, the United says had worked out firmly into a two-party system. The Democrats generally supported minimal federal power, states’ rights, and slavery and also its expansion, and also opposed protective tariffs and also federal safety on roads and also canals (“internal improvements”). The Whigs generally supported higher expansive federal powers and also economic nationalism of the American System, while the party separation over slavery, with plenty of of its north members opposing the westward expansion of slavery.

Manifest Destiny: westward Expansion

Americans’ rapid westward migrate was changing the really nature that the unified States. Building on the migration the had started in earnest ~ the war of 1812, the Indian removals that the 1830s had actually cleared the means for additional westward expansion in the South, if the former Louisiana acquisition territories were rapidly swallowed up by homesteaders. The hatchet “Manifest Destiny,” which entered the language in the mid-1840s, said the unified States had actually a divinely appointed mission to expand westward come the shores of the Pacific Ocean against any opposition. Yet this idea the destiny sustained another, divisive debate: as the nation expanded, would enslavement too?

The very first new phase in what would certainly soon end up being a tidal tide of western growth centered around Mexico and the territory of Texas. After winning self-reliance from Spain in 1821, Mexico enticed white settlement in this region, which was lived in by the Comanches. At first, Mexico welcomed American inhabitants if they became Mexican citizens, converted to Catholicism, and did not lug their slaves. Nine years later, because these stipulations were no being followed, the Mexican federal government outlawed more immigration indigenous the united States, yet to small effect. ~ a war for independence in 1835–1836 that began with the Mexican record of a small Texan garrison at the Alamo and ended v the defeat and also capture of mexico president Antonio López de Santa Anna, white settlers established the live independence Republic that Texas (see the Sam Houston and also Texas Independence Narrative).


This 1903 paint by Robert Jenkins Onderdonk depicts a see of the defenders of the Alamo as making a heroic last stand. Davy Crockett the famous frontiersman and politician who joined the Texans in ~ the Alamo is dressed in buckskin and also using his rifle as a club. There are conflicting accounts as to whether Crockett died in a final stand or surrendered and was executed. How does this painting depict Manifest Destiny and the American West?

Over the complying with years, Texans and southern political leaders campaigned stridently for the addition of Texas to the joined States. The Jackson and also Van Buren managements had hesitated come comply because of the sectional and political problem it would produce, but Tyler to be sympathetic. He moved the worry in Congress regardless of opposition from john Quincy Adams, then serving in the house of Representatives, and resistance by other northerners and Whigs in Congress who saw annexation as a pretext for widening slavery. In one of his critical acts as president, Tyler propelled a share resolution through Congress and signed the bill making Texas eligible for join to the United says as a territory and also then as a state, i m sorry it came to be in December 1845. Texan statehood ended up being a flashpoint bring about the Mexican-American battle of 1846–1848 that moved the boundaries of the United says to California.

Social and religious Movements in the Second great Awakening

Even as the unified States broadened outward, and inwardly discussed the moral implications of the farming system the slavery, countless of its human being experienced a religious revival in what has concerned be dubbed the Second good Awakening. Vice versa, eighteenth-century Calvinists had actually emphasized the i can not qualify of people to get rid of sin top top their own accounts, a brand-new order the preachers now argued the opposite, explain that world could reject and also overcome sin through direct activity (see the Jedediah Burchard, Revivalist Sermon, 1835 Primary Source).

Public missionaries that the Second good Awakening taught emotionally and worked tirelessly come foster true repentance and conversion in dramatic publicly encounters referred to as revivals. The birth or development of several spiritual denominations accompanied the Second an excellent Awakening, specifically including Baptists and Methodists, whose preachers provided these approaches for conversion. In 1830, in ~ the period of 24 years, Joseph Smith published the Book the Mormon and established the Church of Jesus Christ that Latter-Day Saints in new York (see The Mormon Trail Narrative).

Some motions took the ideals that the Second an excellent Awakening even further by attempting to create utopian areas that would certainly herald a brand-new Jerusalem of peace and also brotherhood. Among these was the Oneida Community, which john Humphrey Noyes established in 1848 in brand-new York. His followers, known as Perfectionists, eventually spread come other areas of the unified States, especially new England, however their often-unconventional views on marriage and morality infuriated the mainstream neighborhoods amid which they settled.


The Oneida community practiced “complex marriage ” an institution in i m sorry every guy was married to every woman and also vice versa. John Humphrey Noyes presented in an 1896 image urged this practice because he believed that God did not desire monogamy.

Other utopian communities found impetus in the ideas of transcendentalism. Illustration upon european Romanticism, the transcendentalists said for the an essential goodness of person nature and also argued that complimentary thought and life live independence of mainstream culture could lug individuals to higher states that being. The community of Brook farm in Massachusetts, established in 1841 by former Unitarian minister George Ripley, through the assistance of males like authors Nathaniel Hawthorne and also Charles A. Dana, search to lug this concept to fruition v communal life that fostered the “thinking worker.” Like many other utopian or neo-utopian communities, however, Brook farm yard folded after less than a te in operation.

Inspired by the Second an excellent Awakening, Revolutionary principles of equality, and also Enlightenment humanitarianism, antebellum reformers sought come transform society by transforming it far from sin and also laying the foundations for a better or even utopian future. Individuals, often women, operated together in voluntarily organizations dedicated to this reform efforts, which originated locally but grew to regional and more comprehensive importance and eventually swayed national policy. Although it violated the social norm of “separate spheres” for ladies to go into into politics and also public life, the ethical nature that antebellum reform gave women the opportunity to an obstacle this border on the grounds of bettering the lives of others.

Growing Resistance to Slavery

The most extreme instances of resistance to slavery occurred among African Americans. In 1829, complimentary black David Walker published his Appeal come the fancy Citizens of the World, a radical pamphlet warning whites the blacks would rebellion if the enslaved were not freed (see the David Walker, “An Appeal to the Coloured citizen of the World,” 1829 Primary Source). The wrote, “your damage is at hand, and will it is in speedily consummated uneven you REPENT.” On august 22 and 23, 1831, Nat Turner’s Rebellion erupted in southeastern Virginia. Nat Turner to be guided by his interpretation of biblical and religious ideals. He thought he had a divine mission that exacting vengeance against slaveholders and also ushering in a brand-new age the liberty. About sixty enslaved and free blacks in Southampton County travel through numerous plantations and also murdered and decapitated virtually sixty white inhabitants, including forty-six women and also children. White mobs and militia troops retaliated through massacring an ext than one hundred enslaved and cost-free blacks, some of whom did not even participate in the rebellion. Turner eluded catch for numerous weeks until he was caught, tried, and also hanged. The episode prompted an internal controversy over slavery and also emancipation in Virginia however mostly result in increases in slave patrols, tighter controls end the movement and also meetings of enslaved persons, and also restrictions on complimentary blacks (see the Nat Turner’s Rebellion Narrative).

The Second good Awakening, knowledge ideas and also the ideals of the declaration of independence energized abolitionists who operated to finish slavery. They offered the same way as other social reformers, consisting of voluntary organizations, religiously motivated emotional preaching, and also aggressive proselytism to academy change. Here, too, females played a top role.

By this time, slavery had come to be a national concern of increasing importance, and also one that intimidated to destabilize the nation even to the point of war. In 1831, william Lloyd Garrison helped stimulate the rise of the abolitionist motion by launching a newspaper called the Liberator, demanding the prompt emancipation of enslaved persons (reversing his previous support of steady emancipation), and denouncing enslavement as a national sin (see the William Lloyd Garrison’s War versus Slavery Narrative). He suggested the Constitution was a “covenant through death and also an covenant with Hell” and also opposed abolitionists participating in politics. In 1833, Garrison, wealthy new York philanthropists Arthur and also Lewis Tappan, Wendell Phillips, and also other abolitionist reformers started the American Anti-Slavery culture in brand-new York.

Abolitionists created hundreds the antislavery societies, traveled with the North and also Midwest delivering speeches against slavery, petitioned Congress because that an finish to slavery, and also wrote and distributed antislavery tracts in the North and also South. Mrs abolitionists additionally joined the class circuit, wrote antislavery tracts, and started female antislavery societies. Renowned female abolitionist speakers included new England Quaker reformers Lucretia Mott and Abby Kelley, and the south Carolina sister Angelina and Sarah Grimké, who relocated north. Many northerners were shocked by this female abolitionist speakers addressing blended crowds and also hurled objects in ~ them or violently chased them turn off stages. Mott and also Kelley later supported women’s suffrage and black suffrage (see the Sarah M. Grimké, letter on the Equality that the Sexes and also Condition of Women, 1837 Primary Source).

African americans were prominent abolitionists, and also those former enslaved persons who spoke against the ills of enslavement did so with special authority that made Garrison and others welcome them into the movement. Harriet Tubman had escaped native slavery and also courageously make at the very least nineteen trips come the south to liberate enslaved persons. She was a crucial leader in the underground Railroad, a network of civilization who assisted runaway enslaved human being escape with the north to freedom. Frederick Douglass had actually escaped from slavery to come to be a influential speaker, writer of 3 autobiographies describing his experiences, and publisher of the abolitionist newspaper North Star. He later damaged with Garrison and read the Constitution as an antislavery document. Sojourner truth was one antislavery activist who supported abolitionism and women’s rights in her speeches, the most famed of which was “Ain’t ns a Woman?” (see the Frederick Douglass’s path to Freedom Narrative and the Frederick Douglass, Narrative the the Life that Frederick Douglass, 1845 Primary Source).

All abolitionists concurred that slavery was a moral evil that essential to be outlawed, yet there was a variety of opinion regarding whether it have to happen immediately or gradually. Abolitionism provoked angry and also sometimes violent reaction from southern and also even north defenders of a system they thought about integral come the American means of life. Your disdain for female authorized in abolitionism further promoted feelings that resentment.

Northern mobs often reacted violently to the incendiary message and beat up or hurled rocks at male and also female abolitionist speakers. Top top November 7, 1837, one Illinois mob ruined the presses the abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy and also murdered him. In 1835, the American Anti-Slavery culture began mail abolitionist tracts to significant churchmen and government officials throughout the South. After angry mobs burned a consignment that abolitionist literary works on the docks of Charleston, the Postmaster general ruled, v President Jackson’s support, the states had the best to deny carry of even federal mail.


This lumber engraving the unknown day depicts a mob burn abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy’s building.

At the exact same time, abolitionists sent thousands the antislavery petitions to conference which infuriated southerly representatives and also took up raising proportion of legislature time. On may 26 1836 southerly Congressmen succeeded in their efforts to obtain the residence of to represent to present a “gag dominion ” whereby all antislavery petitions would be tabled automatically and ignored. Man Quincy Adams immediately denounced the ascendancy as unconstitutional in Congress but it remained in place until after years of marketing he succeeded in having actually it rescinded in 1844 (see the john Quincy Adams and the Gag preeminence Decision Point).

Perhaps Adams’s many satisfying an individual achievement despite took location in the Amistad case. In the summer that 1839, a cargo of West afri who had been marketed as servants in Havana Cuba revolted ~ above the servant ship Amistad killing the captain and crew and demanding to be went back to Africa. Subsequently captured by a U.S. Ship and imprisoned in Connecticut the enslaved men came to be the focus of a national and also international dispute over your fate that went every the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. In January 1841 Adams took the situation as a lawyer and also delivered one impassioned nine-hour speech that encouraged the justices to complimentary the thirty surviving slaves and also return them to Africa (see the man Quincy Adams and also the Amistad Narrative).

Social Reforms and Suffrage

Antebellum reformers also targeted the inhumane problems in prisons and also asylums, establishments that concentrated on incarceration and also punishment fairly than rehabilitation. Horrified reformers such together Samuel Gridley Howe and also Dorothea Dix campaigned for changes, including avenues for education, recreation, and spiritual instruction because that inmates. Through their efforts, especially in new England, several design prisons and also asylums were constructed (see the Dorothea Dix, Memorial come the legislation of Massachusetts, 1843 Primary Source).

The drive for temperance (abstinence from alcohol) was another reforming activity that was developed locally, often on the spiritual principles that the Second good Awakening. Moreover, the typical adult consumed an ext than seven gallons the liquor annually, and also some men victimized their families by drinking every their earnings away or abusing your wives and also children. Reformers additionally supported temperance because they were influenced by xenophobia and associated heavy drinking with German and Irish immigrant in urban areas. The earliest societies for the promo of abstinence indigenous alcohol showed up in new England toward the beginning of the nineteenth century, however their efforts accelerated in the 1830s, by which time there were thousands of local temperance societies throughout the united States, as well as the nationwide American society for the promotion of Temperance. Frequently working in tandem v Methodist and also other preachers who suggested that people could choose to rotate away indigenous sin, temperance advocates organized public events to convince much more than one million adherents come abstain from alcohol and drink only water. By the 1840s, they had actually enacted numerous prohibition ordinances, from the county to the state level.

These burgeoning movements for public welfare corresponded with a renewed attention in windy education. George Washington, believing that an educated electorate was a basic underpinning the American democracy, had provided financial assistance to private educational foundations. Thomas Jefferson had also proposed a device of government-funded public education in Virginia. In 1837–1838, Secretary Horace Mann of the Massachusetts plank of education and learning succeeded in fostering the common public school movement. By creating typical public colleges funded from local taxes, Mann and his followers throughout the united States believed they can establish a device of global secular education and learning that would certainly not just buttress the political system but help ensure social harmony. Back this vision because that national education and learning was never totally realized, its long-term impacts were transformative.


Horace Mann displayed in a daguerreotype from about 1850 believed that boosting public education would carry wide-ranging services because society would be an ext prosperous and benign.

A broad movement for women’s suffrage emerged out of women’s diligent efforts in various other antebellum reform movements. Ladies reformers were banned native participating in the 1840 human being Anti-Slavery Convention in London; they started advocating for equal legal rights for women. Abolitionist leader Lucretia Mott and also Elizabeth Cady Stanton initiated the national process by convening the very first women’s civil liberties convention in the united States, organized in Seneca Falls, new York, in July 1848. Some 2 hundred females attended the convention’s very first day; on the next day, men, consisting of abolitionist icon Frederick Douglass, to visit and combined their reasons into one project to transform the ar of women in U.S. Society. In their Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions (commonly dubbed the “Declaration the Sentiments”), the convention’s attendees appealed to the natural and civil rights of women by illustration close parallels come the declaration of freedom (see the Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the struggle for Women’s Suffrage Narrative).


(a) Lucretia Mott and also (b) Elizabeth Cady Stanton were pioneers in women’s rights initiatives in the United says writing the explanation of Sentiments and beginning a series of women’s civil liberties conventions.

The Seneca falls Convention the 1848 in part ways may be seen as a culmination the the democratization of national politics that symbolically started with the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828. Yet the roadway ahead continued to be unclear. Although the American political system had resolved into a two-party mechanism that endures come this day, westward expansion and conflict through American Indians and possibly foreign powers, combined with quickly escalating tensions over public morality, well-known rights, and especially the school of slavery, increasingly threatened to tear the United claims apart.


By 1828 suffrage expanded to include an ext white men and also reforms—male mrs black and white—were motivated to enhance society. The country ongoing to flourish as did sectional divisions within the republic.

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Review Questions

1. Andrew Jackson defeated incumbent president john Quincy Adams in the election of 1828 primarily because of

Adams’s opposition to slaveryJackson’s decision to remove American IndiansAdams’s perceived weakness in foreign relationsthe Jackson campaign’s focus on reaching a vast electorate

2. The primary outcome that the Nullification crisis was to

bring the United says and great Britain come the suggest of warundermine public support for Andrew Jacksonestablish a precedent for state secessionprovoke the scare of 1837

3. Whigs denounced Jackson together King Andrew I since of

his sympathy for an excellent Britainhis extravagant lifestylehis assistance for hereditary rulehis growth and free use that presidential powers

4. I m sorry of the adhering to was no a prime emphasis of organized antebellum revolutionary movements?

TemperanceAmerican Indian rightsPrison reformAbolition the slavery

5. All the adhering to were the roots of significant crises in the Jackson management except

the tariff issuethe growth of suffragethe national bankthe civil liberties of American Indians

6. President Andrew Jackson applied his check out of the ideal use the federal strength by exhilaration to weaken

the nationwide bankthe spoils systemthe veto powerhigh security tariffs.

7. I beg your pardon of this was not a an outcome of the Indian Removal plot of 1830?

The can be fried Court ruling in Worcester v. GeorgiaThe supreme Court judgment in Cherokee nation v. GeorgiaThe follow of TearsThe beginning of the Frontier Wars

8. What to be the key idea of john C. Calhoun’s Exposition and Protest published in 1828?

That states had the ideal to explain a federal regulation unconstitutionalThat the southern was against the policies of President john Quincy AdamsThat south Carolina wanted to produce its own tariff policyThat States’ rights were low grade to federal policy

9. Exposition and Protest held the same premise as which document?

The write-ups of Confederation the 1781The Kentucky Resolutions that 1799The Tariff of 1816The Monroe doctrine of 1823

10. The most far-reaching issue the the election of 1832 was

the tariff issuethe legal rights of American Indianswomen’s suffragethe national bank

11. I beg your pardon of the complying with actions did president Andrew Jackson take regarding the bank of the united States?

Agreed with Nicholas Biddle’s discussion in favor of the bankVetoed the re-chartering the the bank in 1832Left any significant decision about the financial institution to his follower Martin valve BurenImmediately closed the national bank

12. The Whig Party most most likely won the choice of 1840 since of

its wholesale assistance of the development of enslavement west the the Mississippi Riverthe decreasing popularity the Martin van Buren ~ the panic of 1837the Whigs’ ideology that smaller government equals an ext effective governmentthe popularity of william Henry Harrison together an anti-Jacksonian

13. The desire to do which the the following best describes the ide of Manifest Destiny in the 1840s?

Expand American territory from the Atlantic to the Pacific OceanExtend U.S. Economic regulate throughout the AmericasImplement immediate abolition throughout all existing states and territoriesExtend the influence of good news Christianity right into the territories got in the Louisiana Purchase

14. The greatest affect of the Mexican battle of 1846–1848 to be that

the joined States got a significant amount of are in its quest to broaden to the Pacificabolitionism spread across the North and Southslavery to be outlawed in the brand-new territoriesTexas became a state in ~ the conclusion the the fighting

15. The Second great Awakening affected all the adhering to except

the development of “perfectionist” societies choose the Oneida Communitythe development of new religious sects favor the Mormonssupport for public education for allthe spread of American democratic ideals even if it supposed war

16. The reform motion stemming native the Second great Awakening that brought about the most debate in the United claims was

public education for allrights for womenabolitionismutopianism

17. The development of the “gag rule” in conference meant

petitions supporting the abolition of slavery would not be introduced on the floor of Congressit was unlawful to comment on the tariff concern in Congressonly law that sustained the expansion of slavery could be disputed in Congressa declaration of war was not to be discussed in Congress

18. The Seneca falls Convention in 1848 was known for a paper its attendees authorize in support of

nationwide temperancepublic education and learning for allequal civil liberties for native Americansrights for women

Free an answer Questions

Explain how the Second great Awakening and antebellum social reform movements influenced and reinforced each other.Explain exactly how the election of 1828 signaled a adjust in U.S. Nationwide politics.Explain why settlers moved to Texas throughout the 1820s and into the 1830s and how this migration impacted the united States.Explain exactly how the role of women influenced social revolutionary in the joined States during the 1830s and 1840s.

AP practice Questions


King Andrew the an initial created by one unknown artist c. 1833.

Refer come the photo provided.

1. In the political cartoon the on purpose of the artist is to

praise chairman Jackson for his strong and efficient leadership while in officesupport chairman Jackson’s use of the veto to “protect the usual man”illustrate belief that chairman Jackson abused his strength as presidentpropose that Jackson should serve together president because that life

2. Civilization who agree with the sentiments expressed in the politics cartoon would certainly most likely support

the spread of slavery into the western territoriesan rise in the tariff ratesthe security of American indians from federal government interferencethe formation of the Whig Party


Westward Ho through Emanuel Leutze 1861.

Refer come the images provided.

3. The paints reflect the sentiments the what American idea?

Overseas expansionJacksonian democracyManifest DestinyNullification

4. The sentiments express in the paints share typical values through which group?

Camp conference speakers of the Second great AwakeningMembers that the boy of Liberty in the late colonial EraBritish colonists who protest the royal Proclamation that 1763Anti-Masonic Movement

Primary Sources

Cain william E. William Lloyd Garrison and the Fight against Slavery: Selections indigenous The Liberator. Boston: Bedford publications 1994.

Greenberg Amy S. Ed. Manifest Destiny and also American territorial Expansion: A Brief background with Documents. Boston: Bedford publications 2017.

Greenberg Kenneth S. Ed. The Confessions the Nat Turner. Boston: Bedford books 2016.

Jackson Andrew. “President Andrew Jackson’s Veto Message about the financial institution of the united States; July 10, 1832.” Yale law School. Https://

Jacobs Harriet. Incidents in the Life that a servant Girl. Brand-new York: W.W. Norton 2018.

Purdue Theda ed. The Cherokee Removal: A Brief history with Documents. Boston: Bedford publications 2016

Sklar Kathryn Kish ed. Women’s rights Emerges within the Anti-Slavery motion 1830-1870: A Short background with Documents. Boston: Bedford books 2019.

“South Carolina Ordinance of Nullification November 24, 1832.”

Tocqueville Alexis. Democracy in America. Edited by Harvey C. Mansfield and also Delba Winthrop. Chicago: college of Chicago push 2002.

Walker David. “Walker’s appeal in four Articles; together with a Preamble to the Coloured citizen of the World however in certain and very Expressly come Those the the United says of America written in Boston State of Massachusetts September 28, 1829: digital Edition.” college of phibìc Carolina at Chapel Hill. Https://

Suggested Resources

Brands H.W. Heirs that the Founders: The epic Rivalry of Henry Clay john Calhoun and also Daniel Webster the second Generation the American Giants. Brand-new York: Doubleday 2018.

Ehle John. Trail of Tears: The Rise and also Fall the the Cherokee Nation. New York: Doubleday 1989.

Garraty john A. And Eric Foner. The Reader’s Companion come American History. Brand-new York: house Mifflin 1991.

Ginzberg Lori D. Women in Antebellum Reform. Brand-new York: Wiley 2000.

Howe Daniel Walker. What hath God Wrought: The change of America 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University push 2007.

McMillen Sally. Seneca Falls and also the beginnings of the Women’s legal rights Movement. Oxford UK: Oxford University press 2009.

Meacham Jon D. American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. Brand-new York: Random residence 2008.

Mintz Steven. Moralists and Modernizers: America’s Pre-Civil war Reformers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University push 1995.

Peterson Merrill D. The good Triumvirate: Webster Clay and also Calhoun. New York: Oxford University press 1988.

Ratcliffe Donald J. Jacksonian America 1815-48. London: Longmans 1994.

Rediker Marcus. The Amistad Rebellion: one Atlantic Odyssey that Slavery and Freedom. Brand-new York: Verso 2013.

Remini Robert. Andrew Jackson and the bank War. Brand-new York: W.W. Norton 1967.

Wallace Anthony F.C. The long Bitter Trail: Andrew Jackson and the Indians. New York: Hill and Wang 1993.

See more: How To Set The Clock On A Pioneer Radio, How Do I Set The Clock On My Single Cd Player

Walter Ronald G. American reversal 1815-1860. Brand-new York: Hill and also Wang 1978.

Wellman Judith. The roadway to Seneca Falls: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and also the an initial Woman’s legal rights Convention. Urbana IL: university of Illinois push 2004