Pre-1607 - prior to the come of the English the Virginia Indians had actually been living in what is now Virginia because that over 12,000 years. Cook Powhatan inherited six tribes that consisted of what came to be known as the wharf Chiefdom throughout this time. The kai Indian lands encompassed all of the assistant Virginia area, native the southern side that the James flow north to the grape max River, and parts of the east Shore, an area they called Tsenacommacah. Its expectations was roughly 100 mile by 100 miles. Before the come of the English, and their foreign diseases, the population is approximated to have been at least 25,000.

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May 1607 - as soon as the English come Wahunsunacock, or an ext popularly chief Powhatan, was the mamanatowick (paramount chief) that the more than 30 tribes that made up the kai Chiefdom. These additional tribes had been acquired through marriage alliances and coercion. Each tribe had their very own chief (weroance/weroansqua), yet all were "ruled" by Powhatan and also paid "tribute" come him. By now the population of the members the the chiefdom was about 15,000 - these are the individuals the English connected with most.


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17th Century sculpture of Captain man Smith

Unknown Artist

Winter 1607 - Captain man Smith was recorded while the end exploring and taken to Werowocomoco wherein Powhatan lived. The two guys conversed and came to an understanding of sorts and also in the feather of 1608 Smith was released. Wharf then started to send gifts of food to aid the English - his young daughter Pocahontas typically accompanied this visits as a authorize of peace.

1609 - Smith was injured as soon as his dynamite pouch caught fire and also was sent house to England. With his exit relations between the powhatan Indians and also the English began to sour much more rapidly. Powhatan relocated from Werowocomoco to Orapaks, which was more inland, to obtain away native the English.


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17th Century Simon van de passe engraving that Pocahontas

Unknown british Museum

1610 - Pocahontas, that was currently a young woman, married a kai "private captain" named Kocoum.

1613 - The English kidnapped Pocahontas to try and force the return the English prisoners and also stolen weapons. She was at some point taken to Henrico come live. Negotiations between the two individuals began.

1614 - if in bondage Pocahontas to be taught English ways, the Christian faith and baptized Rebecca. During this time she met one Englishman named John Rolfe, who wanted come marry her. Through blessings from she father and the governor, follow to English accounts, the 2 were married. The marriage solidified a peace in between the English and the powhatan that became known together the "Peace of Pocahontas." The rolls later had actually a son, that was named Thomas.

1616 - The Virginia agency paid to send Pocahontas, she husband, their child son and also several Powhatan indians to England. Your hope in act so was to gain an ext interest in Jamestown.

1617 - Pocahontas ended up being ill and died in Gravesend, England. After ~ her death the peace in between the powhatan Indians and the English ago in Virginia began to unravel.

1618 - wharf died. His succession was briefly passed on come his younger brother, Opitchapam, and then come his next younger brother Opechancanough.


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Indian attack of 1622

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1622 - exhausted of English expansion Opechancanough plan a coordinated assault on the English settlements. Since of a young Indian boy"s warning james town itself to be spared. Many outlying settlements were attacked and of a population of about 1,200 settlers about 350-400 were killed. After their attack, on in march 22, the Powhatan indians withdrew, as was your way, to wait because that the English to fill up and also leave. The English did no leave and more conflicts arose and also continued on and also off for the next ten years.1644 - although the English population had climbed to around 8,000 Opechancanough was still upset around the English intervention on the land and planned an additional attack. As soon as again about 350-400 English to be killed.


1646 - Opechancanough, who was around 100, was recorded by the English. If in bondage he was shot in the earlier by an English security - versus orders - and also killed. His death began the finish of the kai Chiefdom.1646/77 - Treaties were signed in between the Powhatan and the English. They restricted access come lands the were considered English and collection up reservations. The 1677 treaty also set up yearly tribute payment that was made to the English king. The powhatan were currently English subjects.


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21st Century mataponi Indian Reservation pottery made in the traditional manner

Sarah J Stebbins

1693 - The university of William and Mary was started to teach American Indians and also clergy. In the early 1700s governor Spotswood told the Powhatan ind he would remit their yearly tribute payments if they sent their youngsters to the school. By the late 1700s capital for the college to be diverted elsewhere and also the institution was closed come non-whites until 1964.

1700s - More Indian lands to be lost, consisting of the reservations of the Rappahannock (shortly after ~ 1700), the chickahominy (1718), and the nanemond (who offered theirs in 1792). Some timeless ways were still practiced, however after years of interactions with the English numerous Powhatan Indians were identifying themselves as Christians and speaking English more and more. By 1800 many of the native languages were no longer heard.

1800s - The desire to press the Powhatan indians off your lands began again. This time the certain target to be the four remaining Virginia Indian people that still organized onto your reservation lands. The whites also wanted to end their condition as tribes. One preventive was sold by 1850 if another, the notoway Reservation, was split by 1878 (though countless families organized onto their lands into the 20th century). The Mattaponi and Pamunkey room the only two people that refuse to give in to the attempts and still keep their reservations into the current day.


1912-1946 - Walter Plecker to be the head of vital statistics in Virginia throughout this time. He to be a follower of the eugenics movement and also a white supremacist. Peace performed what price to "paper genocide" against all Virginia Indians due to the fact that he want to refuse they existed as he assumed there to be no "true" ind in Virginia. In his view if you had 1/16th african ancestry, or by 1923 any type of trace of african ancestry, you were taken into consideration "colored." He want all documents, such together birth certificates, death certificates, marriage licenses, voter registration books, etc to reflect this by not making use of the term "Indian." The just two classifications follow to Plecker to be "white" and "colored."

1924 - The gyeongju Integrity Act to be passed. The said, among other things, the it was illegal because that whites and also non-whites to marry and recognized just two racial classifications: "white" and "colored." Walter Plecker to be a strong advocate because that it together he want to save the white "master race" "pure" and because he refuse the presence of the Virginia indians - that he referred to as "mongrels." He thought the Virginia Indians wanted to escape "negro status" so they could go to white schools and also marry whites. After this act to be passed that was easier for percker to get his great in having papers use just the state "white" or "colored." come escape Plecker"s aggressive project many Virginia ind left the state. This is the same year the Indian Citizenship action of 1924 was passed. The plot granted all American ind United says citizenship - some had obtained it formerly through marriage, unique treaties, receipt of allotments or through army service.


1967 - The United says Supreme Court i turned down the gyeongju Integrity act in the case Loving vs. Virginia speak "Under our Constitution, the liberty to marry, or no marry, a human of another race lives with the individual and also cannot be violation by the State." Virginia indians were now able to marry that they chose and more importantly to adjust their bear certificates come accurately display they were Indians, because that a fee. ~ 1997, when Delegate Harvey Morgan"s invoice passed, any type of Virginia Indian born in Virginia might have their records readjusted for free.


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Close-up image of main piece that the picture collage in the Pamunkey Indian Museum

Sarah J Stebbins

1980s - By the end of the 1980s there were 7 tribes recognized by the republic of Virginia who were part of, or ally with, the kai Chiefdom: the Pamunkey, mataponi (both maintain their reservation lands from the 1600s), upper Mattaponi, Chickahominy, east Chickahominy, Nansemond, and the Rappahannock.The monacan Nation, who was never component of the wharf Chiefdom, was recognized by the republic of Virginia during this time together well.


1990s-2009 - six of the state recognized tribes, all however the 2 preventive tribes, began seeking federal recognition through an act of Congress. They have tried to get the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian people of Virginia Federal acknowledgment Act passed many times over the years.In march 2009 the tribes sent out the bill to the house Committee on herbal Resources to begin the procedure again. ~ above April 22 the committee recommended the invoice be sent out on to the residence of Representatives, who passed the on June 3. The Senate climate referred a companion bill to their Committee on Indian Affairs, who had actually it sent to the complete Senate on October 25. The invoice was then placed on the Senate legislature Calendar top top December 23, 2009. This is the farthest the bill has ever gotten in the conference process.The Senate bill later passed away as a an outcome of a organize placed on the - by city council Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) - the prevented that from being heard and voted on through the Senate prior to 2010 involved a close (the end of that Congressional session).


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Virginia Indian heritage Day at Jamestown negotiation (2008).

Sarah J Stebbins

2010 - In early 2010 three an ext tribes were well-known by the commonwealth of Virginia: the Patawomeck, the Nottoway, and also the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway). There are now eleven tribes recognized by the commonwealth of Virginia and also eight who space Powhatan lower - the pattand merck Indian people joins the 7 tribes the were state recognized in the 1980s. Around 3,400 civilization are lack members of this eight Powhatan descended tribes. The Monacan country has 2,000 lack members, the nottoway Indians of Virginia have actually 120 tribal members, and the Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) ind of Virginia have 272 lack members.Collectively this eleven recognized Virginia Indian people own much less than 2,000 acres of land.The 2 reservation tribes, the Mattaponi and also the Pamunkey, proceed to make the yearly tribute payments of fish and game, currently to the Virginia governor, together stipulated in the 1646 and 1677 treaties. Many other powhatan Indian and Virginia Indian lower tribes are still living in Virginia, and also elsewhere, today. Numerous who quiet live in Virginia are currently seeking state recognition.


2011 - In February, all 6 tribes began the procedure to get federal acknowledgment again, placing a invoice in the US home of representatives (H.R.783) and a companion bill in the Senate (S.379) on the same day. Top top July 28, 2011, the Senate Committee top top Indian Affairs authorized the Senate bill; the bill is currently waiting to be placed on the Senate legislative calendar. The house bill is at this time in the house Subcommittee Indian and Alaska native Affairs. Both bills stay in the very same spot together of April 2012. If the bills do not pass by the end of 2012 (the finish of this congressional session), the tribes must start the procedure all end again.For the many up to date information on the bills:House variation of Indian people of Virginia Federal recognition ActSenate variation of Indian tribes of Virginia Federal recognition Act


Gleach, frederic W. Powhatan"s World and also Colonial Virginia: A problem of Cultures. Lincoln: The university of Nebraska Press, 1997.

Kimberlain, Joanne. "We"re still Here." The Virginian-Pilot. June 7-9 2009: Print.

"Native American Citizenship: 1924 Indian Citizenship Act." NebraskaStudies.org. Web. 24 may 2009.

Rountree, Helen C. Pocahontas, Powhatan, Opechancanough: three Indian Lives readjusted by Jamestown. Charlottesville: university of Virginia Press, 2005.

Rountree, Helen C. (editor) Powhatan foreign Relations: 1500-1722. Charlottesville: University press of Virginia, 1993.

Rountree, Helen C. The Powhatan ind of Virginia: Their classic Culture. Norman: college of Oklahoma Press, 1989.

Rountree, Helen C. And E. Randolph Turner III. Before and also After Jamestown: Virginia"s Powhatans and Their Predecessors. Gainesville: University press of Florida, 2002.

"U.S. Can be fried Court loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. (1967)." FindLaw. 1994-99. Web.3 February 2000.Waugaman, Sandra F. And Danielle Moretti-Langholtz, PhD. We"re quiet Here: modern-day Virginia ind Tell your Stories. Richmond: salley Publishing, modification edition 2006.

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Wood, Karenne (editor). The Virginia Indian heritage Trail. Charlottesville: Virginia foundation for the Humanities, 2007.

Sarah J Stebbinsptcouncil.net Seasonal, might 2009updated June 2010, April 2012

Available online v the nationwide Park service is A study of Virginia Indians and also Jamestown: THE very first CENTURY by daniel Moretti-Langholtz, Ph.D.

Additional details on Virginia Indians have the right to be obtained through the Virginia the supervisory board on indians website at: http://indians.vipnet.org/