Andrew has actually a keen interest in all facets of poetry and writes broadly on the subject. His poems are published online and in print.

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John Keats and also A an overview of as soon as I have actually Fears

When I have actually fears that I might cease to it is in is a sonnet that concentrates on three essential problems of vital importance to john Keats: poetry, love and also time.

Many associate the poem v the romantic poet's obsession v death but it is much an ext an exploration of the difference nature that life and the consolation that creativity, relationships and also the organic world.

The speak is concerned about the future that is true, and that concern is undoubtedly sustained by the life circumstances John Keats happened to uncover himself in.

With a mother already dead indigenous tuberculosis and also a younger brother, Tom, showing similar symptoms - he was to dice a year ~ the city was created - tiny wonder that Keats had an eye ~ above life's ticking clock.

He felt himself to be on the roadway to literature recognition, having actually published his first book that poems in 1817. He had a passion for poetry and also had review with passionate epics by Milton and plays and also sonnets through the master William Shakespeare.

Some the Shakespeare's sonnets must definitely have inspired Keats to write his, and there room echoes indigenous sonnets 12, 30, 60, 64 and 107 which room mostly based upon themes that love, time and also the form When...then.

Being a romantic, Keats sought after ~ the ideals of beauty and truth in his work and also as a poet wanted to street himself indigenous the subjectivity and also egotism the the modern groundbreaking poets, namely william Wordsworth, who he met several times in London.

Keats occurred his own theory top top poetic creativity and also the response of poets to life and also the natural world's beauty. He called it 'negative capability', the intuitive method to suffer where 'uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts' take precedence over facts and also reason.

This heightened feeling of joy and also empathy, beauty and also truth was Keats's raison d'etre. The much preferred this to cold logic.

When I have actually fears concentrates ~ above the suspicion of life and also juxtaposes are afraid against an imaginative potential and also love. The speaker desperately desires to achieve things in his life, to publish books of poetry, to endure true love, yet knows the time may be versus him.

This sonnet was composed in a letter to a friend, man Hamilton Reynolds, ~ above the 31st January 1818 and published in a book, Poems, in 1848.

When I have Fears


Analysis: once I have fears - first Quatrain - present 1 - 4

Line 1

When I have fears that I may cease to be gives the reader an instant impression of the speaker's emotional state. This heat represents a mind complete of anxieties and dark forebodings and the factor why there's such pessimism is because of time and its limitations.

The single syllables in the secure iambic pentameter do a extensive opening line. Words cease is a light voice echo of fear whilst the modal verb may says only opportunity which in itself raises the question - we all die sooner or later on so there is no opportunity of not ceasing come be?

This suspicion points in the direction of the idea of very early death and also is a parallel v the Shakespearean character Hamlet, who consciously said - to be, or no to be, the is the question.

In Keats's sonnet over there is no gift question, just an answer.

Line 2

Using enjambment to full result carries the definition on without need for punctuation for this reason the reader gets to understand why the speaker has actually fears - they are resulted in by the have to harvest every what's going on in his brain.

Specifically, the speaker is afraid the he won't have the ability to write down all the poetry that exists in his head. The relation in between glean'd and also teeming is clear. Assonance connect them with sound and they also are part of the same harvest metaphor: to glean is to conference up the leftovers of grain following the harvest.

Lines 3 and 4

The an allegory continues. The speak repeats the require for poetic fulfilment, this time highlighting a heap of books in charactery (thoughts express by prize or characters) which organize all the ideas and potential the poet has.

Note words garners, a storehouse or granary, used for save on computer the harvest grain. The plural says there will certainly be numerous such stores (books). And the combination of alliteration and assonance, in Before/Book and high piled binds the idea, whilst the verb Holds implies a firm grip.

The very first quatrain to adjust the step metaphorically. The season is autumn, Keats's favourite, and also the harvest will certainly be plentiful, if only there is time enough to conference it in.

Here we have actually an introduction as come why the speaker is so fear of premature death. He desires to publish every the city he can before his time is up.

Second Quatrain - lines 5 - 8

Lines 5 and also 6

If the an initial quatrain provides the straightforward reason for the fears, the second broadens and also deepens the procedure by which the poetic potential (the harvest) is realised.

The speaker is looking at the night sky, the constellations, relating motivation to composition v the irrational and symbolic.

The caesura ~ behold is a catching of the breath, and the triple emphasize night's starr'd confront brings residence the prestige of the imagination in the build of poetry.

The idea is the the poet relates to the spirit natural within nature and also the cosmos - the high romantic - but that this is bound up through uncertainty.

Lines 7 and 8

The speak again describes the finish of life and also of just how this affects his thought processes. The usage of enjambment build on the ongoing theme of poetical i can not qualify - the won't be able to map / your shadows - one more caesura (comma) providing the reader food because that thought.

The eighth line includes that mysterious phrase with the magic hand of chance which should relate come the procedure of poetry gift a type of conjuring act, the stuff of city being essentially intuitive.

So the first eight lines, 2 quatrains, are devoted to poetic accomplishment. The speak fears the he might not harvest every the verse the is inside him in time.

Third Quatrain and also Couplet - currently 9 - 14

Lines 9 - 14

The third quatrain moves far from poetic accomplishment to emphasis on love. The 9th line starts And once I feel.... so the emotional energy increases, difference sharply v think in the saturday line.

The fair creature of one hour is one of two people an actual, beautiful mrs he fleetingly met or part imagined lover. Various doubters have said that the is the hour itself, a brief passage the time, i m sorry the speak feels passes as well quickly.

But the tenth line possibly solidifies the argument that this fair biology is a real woman and also that the speak is familiar with her beauty. Otherwise why words more which implies that the speaker has actually looked at she on vault occasions?

The indigenous never underlines the fact that this will certainly be final. It's use in the next line as the an initial word (as a trochee, with anxiety on the very first syllable) reinforces the idea that the speaker will certainly not suffer the unreal impacts of spontaneous love.

With the enjambment of the eleventh heat leading naturally into the twelfth the reader is then lugged to a reasonably abrupt halt midway through. This is unforeseen but very effective.

Traditionally the last couplet is the turn, the conclusion; that is, lines 13 and also 14 only, but Keats includes fifty percent of the twelfth heat to finish his sonnet.

The long vowels that wide world seem to extend the solitude together the speaker encounters the sea on the symbolic threshold of a shoreline. But there is no feel in this end couplet, over there is only thinking about the finish of mortal time.

The culmination is full aloneness. The fame the the speak hoped would be his, through his poetry, the love the he knows will not be his, drop slowly out the consciousness.

Analysis of as soon as I have actually fears - Rhyme and also Metre

as soon as I have actually fears is a common English or shakespearean sonnet, the is, it has actually three quatrains and an end couplet do a total of 14 lines.


The rhyme scheme is as follows:

abab cdcd efef gg

and all the end rhymes space full. For example: be/charactery...brain/grain...hour/power.

Metre (Meter in American English)

Iambic feet dominate the sonnet, through the very first syllable unstressed and the 2nd stressed - da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM...and therefore on. This produce a steady rhythm usual to regular speech.

But whilst iambic feet room to the fore, finish iambic pentameter lines room in the minority, as you will soon discover.

Keats altered the basic iambic pentameter sample in several lines to produce variation and also effect. This brings added interest because that the reader due to the fact that the stresses are not in the normal iambic mode.

Here is a complete metrical analysis of every line:

When i / have actually fears / that ns / may cease / to be Before / my pen / has actually glean'd / mine tee / ming brain, Before / high-pil / èd Books, / in cha / ractery, Hold choose / rich garn / ers the / full ri / pen'd grain-When i / behold, / upon / the night’s / starr'd face,Huge cloud / y sym / bols that / a high / romance and also think / that ns / might nev / er live / come traceTheir sha / dows with / the ma / gic hand / the chance; And when / i feel, / fair crea / ture the / an hour, That ns / candlestick nev / er look / upon / thee more, Never / have rel / ish in / the fae / ry power Of un / reflec / ting Love— / then top top / the shore Of the /wide civilization / ns stand / alone, / and think Till Love / and also Fame / to noth / ingness / do sink. There room in truth only five lines that space pure iambic pentameter - currently 1, 2, 7, 8 and also 10.Line 3 - the second foot is a spondee - high pilèd - two consecutive stresses place emphasis on the pile of books.Line 4 - the second and 4th feet space spondees in this the many stressed heat of the sonnet, attracting fist to the harvest.Line 5 - again a spondee in the last foot underlines the prominence of the organic world, an important for a romantic.Line 6 - the very first foot maintains the load of this emotion, a spondee, twin stress.Line 9 - the third foot is a spondee, slowing things down.Line 11 - the trochee in the an initial foot is contrasted through the pyrrhic (no stress) in the third.Line 12 - the heat is break-up by a spondee in the 3rd foot, a caesura resulting in a pause.Line 13 - vice versa, pyrrhic is first followed through the reinforced wide world spondee.Line 14 - in the fourth and also fifth foot the repeat pyrrhic and spondee, nothingness fading away, focus on do sink.

When i have are afraid - literary Devices


Repeated consonant close together bring added texture and also echo-like sound because that the reader:

Before high piled Books


think that

feel, fair

wide people


Repeated vowels in indigenous also add to differed sound and assist with musicality. These are discovered in the same lines and between lines:







When a line proceeds on into the next without punctuation, the feeling is brought on and also the reader does not need to consciously pause, so structure up momentum. This helps produce emotion together the sonnet progresses.

Look at lines:

1/2 - the first line carries directly on into the second, relating those countless fears come the action of writing.

7/8 - trace/Their shadows,

11/12 - power/Of....this is the begin of the climactic succession of enjambed lines.

12/13 - shore/Of.... the speak is building up the tension.

13/14 - think/Till.... The top is reached.

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When I have fears - Personification, an allegory and Simile


When human qualities are used to objects and things, together in line 5:

upon the night's starr'd face.


A number of speech that describes objects and things in a way that isn't literally true. It can assist explain, gives a comparison, as in currently 1 - 4 which is a harvest metaphor.