A arrangement is a commitment come a particular course of activity for achieving certain results. Native this it adheres to that there space a number of plans because that achieving various goals. Managers, normally, go the wrong of taking major programmes just as plans. However a number of future process of action are additionally plans. Because that example, beginning the manufacturing of a new product or settings up a brand-new factory is thought about plans. The plans may be classified follow to origin, use, purpose, type etc.

Some the the plans are in the form of standing plans while rather are single use plans. Solitary use plan are used only once and also not over and also over again whereas, repeat use plans are supplied again and also again. For example, objectives, policies, strategies, rules, steps etc., are standing plans because once formulated, they will certainly be used for a long duration and repeatedly. On the other hand, programmes and budgets are solitary use plans due to the fact that once these space achieved, these are to be recipe again.

Following diagram illustrates various plans:


Planning is a commitment to a certain course of activity undertaken come achieve certain results. It consists of several components or derivative plans the are normally bound together. These components are well-known as plans. There can be several types of plans. It is simple to see a major plan together as developing a brand-new enterprise however some future process of actions are also plans. Any kind of course the future activity is a plan.

You are watching: The three kinds of standing plans are policies, procedures, and rules and regulations.


Various plans may be share into:

(1) was standing plans and also

(2) Single-use plans.

1. Stand Plans:

Standing plans are made to be used time and also again. This plans room formulated to guide managerial decisions and actions on problems which room recurring in nature. Standing plan are additionally called ‘repeated use’ plans because these carry out guidelines because that actions to be taken in future. These plans carry out unity and also uniformity of initiatives in meeting repetitive situations emerging at assorted levels the the enterprise. This plans provide ready guidelines for tackling situations of recurring nature. This plans not only aid in co-ordination yet in reliable management also. Stand plans incorporate objectives policies, procedures, methods, rules and strategies.


Standing plan help an companies in the complying with ways:

(i) was standing plans help in afford co-ordination in the enterprise. This plans bring consistency, uniformity and also unity in efforts.

(ii) an elderly executives room able come delegate their job-related to subordinates because procedures, rules, regulations etc. Have been laid down for taking vital decisions.


(iii) this plans aid in achieve goals even if these are vague, complicated or multi-dimensional. The policies, methods, rules, measures etc. Carry out ready frames of reference whenever some an obstacle arises in acquisition decisions.

(iv) Standing plan are developed after a lot of thinking, discussions and arguments. Whenever decisions are essential to it is in taken, these plans aid in rapid decision making. These plans are an excellent labour saving gadgets as they administer frames of recommendations for tackling recurring situations.

(v) this plans assist in far better administrative control. They carry out rational bases for assessing the results of various efforts put by various persons functioning at various levels that the enterprise.

2. Single-Use Plans:

These plans are made for handling non-recurring problems. Single-use plans are additionally referred to together ‘specific plans’ due to the fact that these room meant to settle a details problem. This plans are formulated to take care of non-repetitive and also unique problem. This plans can not be offered again and again; these come to be obsolete ~ achieving their purpose. The examples of this plans are: projects, budgets, programmes.

Purpose or Mission:


The mission or purpose identifies the basic duty or task of an enterprise. Every organization has or should have a objective so the its functioning becomes meaningful. The objective or mission is assigned to every company by the society. The function of a service is come produce and distribute items or services, the purpose of public works department is come construct and maintain roads, the function of courts is to interpret and also apply laws and so on. The purpose is a standing plan in a organization organization which specifies its simple purpose in the light of which other actions space designed.

An organization’s purpose consists of a lengthy term vision that what it seeks to do and the reasons why the exists. The organization’s mission indicates specifically what activities the organization intends to engage in now and in future.

The simple questions to be answered by an company are:

(i) What company we space in?


(ii) What wall our company be?

(iii) Who room our customers?

(iv) What room our values and also beliefs?

(v) What will certainly be our energy to the society? and also so on.



Objectives or goals are the ends towards which every activity is aimed-they space the outcomes to it is in achieved. Goals are a prerequisite because that planning. No plan is possible without setting up of objectives. While enterprise goals are the straightforward plan that the firm, a room may also have its very own objectives. Despite departmental goals will add to the attainment of companies objectives but the two sets of purposes may completely be different. Because that example, the objective of the enterprise might be to earn a details amount the profit, while marketing its products.

Enterprise objectives affect the monitoring philosophy and also practice. Missions have better influence ~ above the working of an organization. All other species of plan such together policies, strategies, procedures, rules, budgets etc. Assist in the attainment of declared enterprise missions in an economical and also efficient manner. Objectives are pertained to the future and are critical part the the to plan process.


Policies are general statements or knowledge which carry out guidance in decision-making to assorted managers. These space standing plans providing guidance to monitoring in the command of managerial operations. Plans define boundaries within i m sorry decisions have the right to be made and decisions room directed in the direction of the accomplishment of objectives. Policies also aid in deciding issues prior to they end up being problems and making the unnecessary to analyze the same instance every time it comes up. Managers can delegate authority within the given parameters and can still retain manage over what their subordinates do. In the native of Koontz and also Weihrich. “Policy is a way of encouraging discretion and also initiative, yet within limits.”


The indigenous ‘strategy’ has long been provided in the contents of military action plans. It was used to state the cool plans do in the irradiate of what the is thought an adversely could or could not do. Supervisors now use strategies in the broader areas of service operations. A strategy is a considerable and integrated plan designed to assure that company objectives are accomplished. The lengthy term objectives of the enterprise room determined and requisite resources are allocated and also deployed to attain the desired results. The function of techniques is to recognize a picture of the sort of enterprise the is envisaged. Strategies perform not attempt to rundown the programmes because that achieving objectives yet they furnish a structure for guiding thinking and also action.


Procedures room details of action or the guidelines for the accomplishment of business objectives. Procedures offer details of how things space to be done. No room is left for judgment. This should help in implementation of policies. Procedures also determine the plan of responsibility and accountability. According to Terry, “A procedure is a series of related work that consist of the chronological sequence and the established method of performing the work-related to it is in accomplished.”

Procedures must be differentiated from policies. A procedure is a guide to activity whereas a plan is a overview to thinking. Plans are accuse for taking decisions and also procedures covers various techniques to achieve each step of work. Policies offer border for interpretation in stimulate to check out that they fit in a details situation whereas steps are tailor-made and also do no offer any type of scope because that interpretation.

A procedure is explained with the aid of acquisition the case of purchasing raw materials for a concern:

(i) Every room needing raw materials will send a purchase requisition to the purchase department offering quantity specifications, type and quality products required.

(ii) The purchase department will consolidate the needs of assorted departments. A merged order is prepared and sent come the suppliers. The acquisition department maintains the perform of suppliers and regularly collection quotations native them. The copy that the purchase order is also sent come the receiving and inspecting department.

(iii) The receiving department compares the items received through the stimulate placed. Any kind of discrepancy in quantity, quality, etc. Is report to the purchase department.

If the products are proper and also according to the order climate a report around it is it is registered to the acquisition department.

(iv) after receiving a satisfactory report from receiving and inspecting department, purchase department forwards the bill to accountancy department for payment.

(v) bookkeeping department checks the bill and also then makes the payment come the supplier.

Whenever a product purchase is essential then the very same procedure is followed. Various tasks require various procedures and they are adhered to in the very same way.

Advantages that Procedures:

1. Basis the Control:

Procedures offer a information of sequences come be followed for perfect a task. It have the right to be seen whether the work-related is proceeding follow to the arrangement or not. Actions are supplied as a manage mechanism because any type of discrepancy in completing the work have the right to be figured out at once.

2. Consistency:

Procedures aid to for sure consistency and also uniformity that performance. Once the measures are established, they have the right to be likewise used again and also again.

3. Standardization:

The standardization of measures reduces the require for decision-making in similar situation. Wherever a task is to it is in performed, the very same procedure will certainly be complied with for act it. This increases efficiency in act a work.

4. Co-ordination:

Procedures establish a sequence to be followed for each work. This helps in coordinating the tasks of various departments or sections since same actions will be adhered to by every one of them.


1. Rigidity:

Rigidity is adhered to in adhering to procedures. They space continuously supplied over and also over again. This uniform initiative and discoveries.

2. Constant Review:

The same steps cannot be adhered to for long terms. The changing situations necessitate the review of procedures. To store them reliable they must be continually updated. They have to be suitably readjusted to fit the existing situation.


A dominance is a arrangement that lays down a compelled course of activity with regard come a situation. A dominion is in the nature of a decision do by management about what is to be done and what is no to be done in a particular situation. A rule is definite and rigid and enables no deviation or discretion come the subordinates. Prefer procedures, rules perform not prescribe a chronological succession of actions to be taken to accomplish a provided objective. A dominance may or may not be a component of the procedure. A ascendancy such together ‘No smoking in the factory’ will certainly not type a component of the procedure. Top top the other, a dominance to make payment within 21 days will certainly be the part of a procedure.

“Rules prescribe the limits of agree behaviour the the members the the organization. Rules will enable managers come predict the behaviour of their subordinates, exactly how will they act in a given situation. Rule channel the behaviour of workers in a desired direction. Workers sometimes resent rules because that stifling your actions. The difficulty does no lie v the rules, but the path in which castle are placed to the workers. Management should shot to structure only those rule which are necessary and also those as well should also be defined properly come the employees.


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A programme is a succession of tasks designed to implement policies and attain objectives. It is devised to accomplish a certain situation. Programme might be taken together a mix of policies, procedures, rules, budgets, task assignments, etc. Developed for the specific purpose of transferring out a details course that action. Separate programmes are prepared for accomplishing various tasks. The very same programme may not be offered for achieving other goals. That is a solitary use setup laid down for brand-new and non-repetitive activities.

In the indigenous of Koontz and also O’Donnell, “Programmes room complexes that goals, policies, procedures, rules, job assignment, actions to be taken, resources to it is in employed and also other aspects necessary to carry out a provided course that action.” come quote George Terry, “A programme have the right to be defined as a substantial plan that has future usage of different resources in an combined pattern and also establishes a sequence of forced actions and also time schedules because that each in bespeak to achieve the traditional objectives.”

Characteristics of Programmes:

The following are the features of programmes:

1. A programme is a single use considerable plan. The is formed to attain a specific purpose only. When the score is completed the programme will certainly not be provided again.

2. A variety of small to plan are ready to build a programme. The programme for enhancing sales by 20 per cent might require a variety of small plan to it is in formed.

3. A programme is all set to attain organisational goals.

4. It gives a time limit up to which the programme is to be implemented. A strict time table is resolved for act a specific task.

5. A programme must ensure combination planning efforts.

Advantages the Programmes:

Following room the benefits of programmes:

1. Programmes lay under a course of activity to be complied with for achieve organisational goals. The details of actions to it is in taken and time schedule come be followed are all chose in advance. This allows smooth implementation that plans.

2. Program are valuable in creating much better co-ordination in the organisation. The policies, procedures, rules, budgets, etc. Are in stimulate to provide proper co­ordination.

3. The programmes are action-oriented plan and administer motivation come employees.

Limitations that Programmes:

1. If the programmes space not carefully framed, over there is a hazard of your being failing. The plot to be taken and the procedures to be followed may be correctly selected. Such lapses in ~ the initial stage will make the program ineffective.

2. There is always a hazard of poor co-ordination. In instance various elements of programmes choose policies, procedures, rules, etc. Space not well balanced properly then the programmes will certainly not be correctly coordinated.

3. The major programmes have actually a variety of sub- programmes. All the sub-programmes must be successfully brought out because that completing the key programme. Any type of lapse in implementing a tiny programme have the right to endanger the entirety exercise.


A spending plan is the monetary or/and quantitative expression of business plans and policies to be pursued in the future duration of time. The ax budgeting is offered for preparing budgets and also other steps for planning, co-ordination and control of organization enterprise.

According to institute of Cost and also Works Accountants, London, “A spending plan is a gaue won statement and also /or quantitative declare prepared before a defined duration of time, the the plan to it is in pursued throughout that duration for the purpose of attaining a provided objective.” In the words of George R. Terry, “A budget is an estimate of future needs, i ordered it according come an orderly bases, extending some or every one of the activities of an companies for a definite duration of time.” In the native of Crown and Howard a budget plan has been characterized as, “A pre-determined explain of administration policy throughout a given period which gives a conventional for comparison through the results actually achieved.”

Characteristics of Budget:

1. A budget plan should be based upon past figures. The possibilities in future should also be taken into account.

2. A budget plan be versatile so the it is modified follow to the needs of the situation. Rigidity in budgets occasionally creates difficulties.

3. The people at various levels should be associated in prepare a budget. This will aid in obtaining willing co­operation the everybody while implementing budgets.

4. A spending plan should be a specific statement. The amounts or monetary details should be plainly mentioned in a budget.

5. There have to be an energetic involvement the top monitoring while prepare a budget.

Need for Preparing Budgets:

Budgeting is important for plan planning and control. The budgets room essential as result of following reasons:

1. Budgets are forced for formulating future policies.

2. Castle are essential for ensuring co-ordination amongst various departments or segments of an enterprise.

3. Budgets act as a device of control in the hand of management. Budgets addressed for various persons will certainly be the criterion fixed for assessing performance.

4. Budgets action as an inspiration for miscellaneous employees. As soon as targets for power are fixed then people will try to achieve them in ~ the earliest. They have actually been provided a goal because that which they should work.

Classification and species of Budgets:

The budgets room usually classified follow to their nature. The complying with are the types of budgets which are frequently used.

A. Category on the communication of Time:

1. Long-term budgets.

2. Short-lived budgets.

3. Present budgets.

B. Group on the basis of Functions:

1. Functional or Subsidiary Budget.

2. Grasp Budget.

C. Category on the basis of Flexibility:

1. Addressed budget.

2. Versatile budget.

A. Category According come Time:

1. Long-term Budgets:

The budgets are all set to depict a irreversible planning of the business. The duration of permanent budgets varies in between five to ten years. The long-term planning is excellent by the peak level management; it is not generally known to reduced level that management. Irreversible budgets are ready for part sectors that the concern such as resources expenditure, research and also development, permanent finances, etc. These budgets are useful for those sectors where gestation duration is long i.e. Machinery, electricity, engineering, etc.

2. Short-term Budgets:

These budgets are usually for one or two years and are in the type of financial terms. The consumers products industries prefer sugar, cotton, textile, etc. Use short-lived budgets.

3. Current Budgets:

The period of existing budgets is typically of months and weeks. These budgets relate to the current tasks of the business. According to I.C.W.A., London. “Current spending plan is a budget which is created for usage over a short duration of time and also is associated to existing conditions.”

B. Classification on the communication of Functions:

1. Functional Budgets:

These budgets are related to various functions, the variety of these budgets counts upon the size and nature the the business.

The frequently used functional budgets are:

(a) Sales Budget.

(b) Production budget including:

(i) raw material spending plan

(ii) Labour spending plan

(iii) tree utilisation Budget.

(c) purchase Budget.

(d) Cash Budget.

(e) Finance Budget.

2. Master Budget:

Various sensible budgets are incorporated into grasp budget. This spending plan is prepared by the can be fried integration that separate useful budgets. According to I.C.W.A., London, “The Master budget is the review budget combine its useful budget.” Master spending plan is ready by the budget office and also it continues to be with the optimal level management. This budget plan is offered to co-ordinate the tasks of miscellaneous functional departments and also is likewise helping as a regulate device.

C. Classification on the communication of Flexibility:

1. Fixed Budget:

The resolved budgets are prepared for a provided level that activity, the budget is prepared prior to the beginning of the jae won year. If the financial year start in January then the budget will be ready a month or two previously i.e. November or December. The changes in expenditure developing out of the anticipated changes will no be changed in the budget. Over there is a difference of around twelve months in the budgeted and also actual figures.

According to I.C.W.A., London, “Fixed budget plan is a budget which is design to stay unchanged irrespective of the level of task actually attained.” fixed budgets are an ideal under static conditions. If sales, expenses and also costs can be prediction with greater accuracy climate this budget can be advantageously used.

2. Flexible Budget:

A flexible budget consists the a collection of budgets for various levels the activity. It, therefore, varies with the level of activity attained. A flexible budget is all set after acquisition into factor to consider unforeseen transforms in the conditions of the business. A fixed spending plan is characterized as a budget which by recognizing the difference between fixed, semi- fixed and variable cost is designed to readjust in relation to the level that activity.

The flexible budgets will certainly be valuable where level of task changes indigenous time come time. As soon as the forecasting of need is uncertain and also the undertaking operates under problems of shortage that materials, labour, etc., climate the budget will be more suited.

Advantages that Budgeting:

Budgets act together a device in the hands of management. They help in enhancing the effectiveness of the business.

The adhering to are some of the benefits of budgeting:

1. Improves Efficiency:

Budgeting help in improving effectiveness in the organization. Every human being gets a target because that achievement. Due to the fact that performance is evaluated versus the targets given, employees try to improve their efficiency.

2. Coordination:

The functioning of different departments and sectors is properly coordinated with the assist of budgeting. The budgets of various departments have a bearing top top one another. The co-operation of assorted executives and also subordinates is necessary for achieve budgeted targets.

3. Economy:

The to plan of expenditure will certainly be systematic and there will be an economy in spending. The finances will certainly be put to optimum use. The benefits derived for the concern will eventually extended come industry and then to nationwide economy.

4. Consciousness among Employees:

Budgeting creates consciousness among employees. By addressing targets for the employees, they space made conscious of their responsibility. Everybody to know what the is expected to do and he proceeds with the job-related uninterrupted.

5. Time Bound:

The budgets are ready for specific periods and also the power is judged at the end of this periods. The results of employees’ working have the right to be recognized after a stated time.