Identify the anatomical functions of a boneDefine and also list instances of bone markingsDescribe the histology of bone tissueCompare and also contrast compact and also spongy boneIdentify the structures that write compact and also spongy boneDescribe exactly how bones are nourished and also innervated

Bone organization (osseous tissue) differs considerably from other tissues in the body. Bone is hard and many of its functions depend on the characteristic hardness. Later on discussions in this thing will display that bone is additionally dynamic in the its shape adjusts to accommodate stresses. This ar will study the pistol anatomy the bone first and then move on to its histology.

You are watching: This is a layer of hyaline cartilage that reduces friction between bones involved in a joint.


Gross Anatomy that Bone

The framework of a lengthy bone permits for the ideal visualization of all of the components of a bone (). A long bone has actually two parts: the diaphysis and the epiphysis. The diaphysis is the tubular tower that runs between the proximal and also distal end of the bone. The hollow an ar in the diaphysis is dubbed the medullary cavity, i beg your pardon is filled v yellow marrow. The wall surfaces of the diaphysis room composed the dense and also hard compact bone.



Flat bones, favor those that the cranium, consists a class of diploë (spongy bone), inside wall on either next by a great of compact bone (). The two layers that compact bone and also the interior spongy bone work together to defend the interior organs. If the external layer that a cranial bone fractures, the mind is still defended by the intact inner layer.


This cross-section the a level bone mirrors the spongy bone (diploë) lined on either side by a layer of compact bone.


Bone Cells and also TissueBone consists of a reasonably small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen yarn that carry out a surface for inorganic salt crystals to adhere. These salt crystals kind when calcium phosphate and also calcium carbonate combine to produce hydroxyapatite, i beg your pardon incorporates other not natural salts like magnesium hydroxide, fluoride, and also sulfate together it crystallizes, or calcifies, ~ above the collagen fibers. The hydroxyapatite crystals provide bones your hardness and strength, if the collagen fibers give them adaptability so that they space not brittle.

Although bone cells create a tiny amount that the bone volume, castle are an essential to the function of bones. Four species of cell are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts ().


Four species of cell are found within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and also develop right into osteoblasts. As soon as osteoblasts obtain trapped in ~ the calcified matrix, their framework and duty changes, and also they end up being osteocytes. Osteoclasts construct from monocytes and also macrophages and also differ in figure from various other bone cells.

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Watch this video clip to check out the microscopic functions of a bone.


Chapter Review

A hole medullary cavity filled through yellow marrow operation the size of the diaphysis that a lengthy bone. The wall surfaces of the diaphysis space compact bone. The epiphyses, i m sorry are broader sections in ~ each end of a long bone, are filled v spongy bone and also red marrow. The epiphyseal plate, a layer of hyaline cartilage, is changed by osseous organization as the body organ grows in length. The medullary cavity has a delicate membranous lining referred to as the endosteum. The outer surface of bone, except in regions covered with articular cartilage, is spanned with a fibrous membrane called the periosteum. Level bones consist of of two layers the compact bone bordering a class of spongy bone. Bone markings rely on the role and place of bones. Articulations are places where two bones meet. Projections stick the end from the surface of the bone and administer attachment points for tendons and also ligaments. Holes are openings or depressions in the bones.

Bone matrix is composed of collagen fibers and also organic soil substance, mainly hydroxyapatite formed from calcium salts. Osteogenic cells construct into osteoblasts. Osteoblasts space cells the make new bone. They come to be osteocytes, the cells of mature bone, once they acquire trapped in the matrix. Osteoclasts engage in bone resorption. Compact bone is dense and composed that osteons, while spongy bone is less dense and made increase of trabeculae. Blood vessels and also nerves go into the bone with the nutrient foramina come nourish and innervate bones.


Which the the following occurs in the spongy bone of the epiphysis?

bone growthbone remodelinghematopoiesisshock absorption

C


The diaphysis consists of ________.

the metaphysisfat storesspongy bonecompact bone

B


The fibrous membrane spanning the outer surface of the bone is the ________.

periosteumepiphysisendosteumdiaphysis

Which of the complying with are i can not qualify of experience mitosis?

osteoblasts and osteoclastsosteocytes and also osteoclastsosteoblasts and osteocytesosteogenic cells and osteoclasts

Which cells execute not originate native osteogenic cells?

osteoblastsosteoclastsosteocytesosteoprogenitor cells

Which that the following are uncovered in compact bone and cancellous bone?

Haversian systemsHaversian canalslamellaelacunae

Which that the following are only uncovered in cancellous bone?

canaliculiVolkmann’s canalstrabeculaecalcium salts

The area of a bone whereby the nutrient foramen passes creates what kind of bone marking?

a holea faceta canala fissure

If the articular cartilage in ~ the finish of among your long bones were to degenerate, what symptoms perform you think you would experience? Why?


If the articular cartilage in ~ the finish of one of your long bones to be to deteriorate, i m sorry is in reality what happens in osteoarthritis, friend would suffer joint pain in ~ the end of the bone and limitation of movement at that joint because there would certainly be no cartilage to reduce friction between adjacent bones and also there would be no cartilage come act as a shock absorber.

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In what ways is the structure makeup the compact and also spongy bone well suited to their corresponding functions?


The densely pack concentric rings of procession in compact bone are right for resisting compressive forces, which is the function of compact bone. The open spaces that the trabeculated network that spongy bone allow spongy bone to support shifts in load distribution, which is the duty of spongy bone.


Glossary

articular cartilagethin layer of cartilage extending an epiphysis; to reduce friction and acts as a shock absorberarticulationwhere 2 bone surface meetcanaliculi(singular = canaliculus) networks within the bone matrix that home one of an osteocyte’s many cytoplasmic extensions that it offers to communicate and receive nutrientscentral canallongitudinal channel in the center of every osteon; includes blood vessels, nerves, and also lymphatic vessels; also known as the Haversian canalcompact bonedense osseous organization that deserve to withstand compressive forcesdiaphysistubular column that runs in between the proximal and distal end of a long bonediploëlayer the spongy bone, that is sandwiched between two the layers of compact bone uncovered in flat bonesendosteumdelicate membranous lining the a bone’s medullary cavityepiphyseal plate(also, expansion plate) paper of hyaline cartilage in the metaphysis of one immature bone; replaced by bone tissue as the organ grows in lengthepiphysiswide ar at each finish of a lengthy bone; filled with spongy bone and red marrowholeopening or depression in a bonelacunae(singular = lacuna) spaces in a bone that home an osteocytemedullary cavityhollow an ar of the diaphysis; filled v yellow marrownutrient foramensmall opened in the middle of the exterior surface the the diaphysis, v which an artery enters the bone to carry out nourishmentosteoblastcell responsible because that forming brand-new boneosteoclastcell responsible because that resorbing boneosteocyteprimary cell in mature bone; responsible for maintaining the matrixosteogenic cellundifferentiated cell through high mitotic activity; the just bone cells that divide; castle differentiate and develop right into osteoblastsosteon(also, Haversian system) basic structural unit that compact bone; made of concentric class of calcified matrixperforating canal(also, Volkmann’s canal) channel that branches turn off from the main canal and houses vessels and also nerves that extend to the periosteum and also endosteumperiosteumfibrous membrane extending the external surface the bone and constant with ligamentsprojectionbone markings where part of the surface ar sticks out over the remainder of the surface, where tendons and ligaments attachspongy bone(also, cancellous bone) trabeculated osseous organization that supports shifts in load distributiontrabeculae(singular = trabecula) spikes or sections of the lattice-like matrix in spongy bone