1) exactly how do the Taylor Glacier bacteria develop their energy? A) photosynthesis B) heterotrophism C) chemoautotrophism D) thermophobism E) chemosynthesis


2) In ecosystems, why is the hatchet cycling provided to explain material transfer, vice versa, the term flow is supplied for power exchange? A) products are repeatedly used, but energy operation through and out of ecosystems. B) Both material and also energy room recycled and also are then transferred to other ecosystems as in a flow. C) products are cycled right into ecosystems from other ecosystems, however energy constantly flows within the ecosystem. D) Both material and also energy circulation in a never-ending stream in ~ an ecosystem. E) nobody of the selections is correct.

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3) i beg your pardon statement most accurately defines how matter and energy are supplied in ecosystems? A) issue is cycled through ecosystems; energy is not. B) power is cycled with ecosystems; issue is not. C) power can be converted right into matter; matter cannot be converted right into energy. D) Matter have the right to be converted right into energy; energy cannot it is in converted into matter. E) matter is provided in ecosystems; energy is not.


4) The legislation of conservation of matter states that issue cannot it is in created, yet issue is sometimes obtained or lost to one ecosystem. What is the reason for this seeming contradiction? A) Chemoautotrophic biology can convert matter to energy. B) Matter deserve to be moved in/out of an ecosystem from/to an additional ecosystem. C) photosynthesis organisms transform solar power to sugars. D) Detrivores convert matter to energy. E) Heterotrophs convert heat come energy.


5) Photosynthetic organisms are distinct to many ecosystems due to the fact that they A) synthesize essential compounds they achieve from decaying heterotrophs. B) synthesize not natural compounds indigenous organic compounds. C) use light power to synthesize necessary compounds. D) usage chemical energy to synthesize organic compounds. E) transform light power into matter.


6) A cow"s herbivorous diet shows that that is a(n) A) major consumer. B) an additional consumer. C) decomposer. D) autotroph. E) producer.


7) come recycle nutrients, one ecosystem must have, in ~ a minimum, A) producers. B) producers and decomposers. C) producers, main consumers, and decomposers. D) producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and also decomposers. E) producers, main consumers, second consumers, peak carnivores, and decomposers.


8) which of the following terms encompasses all of the others? A) heterotrophs B) herbivores C) carnivores D) main consumers E) second consumers


9) countless homeowners mow their lawns during the summer and collect the clippings, which room then hauled come the local landfill. I m sorry of the following actions would most advantage the suburban ecosystem? A) permit sheep to graze the lawn and then collect the sheep"s feces come be ceded to the landfill. B) collection the lawn clippings and also burn them. C) collect the lawn clippings and include them to a compost pile, don"t collection the clippings and also let lock decompose right into the lawn, or apply composted clippings to the lawn. D) collection the clippings and wash them into the nearest storm sewage system that feeds into the local lake. E) dig up the lawn and cover the yard through asphalt.


10) which of the complying with is an example of an ecosystem? A) all of the brook trout in a 500 hectare² flow drainage system. B) The plants, animals, and also decomposers that inhabit one alpine meadow. C) A pond and all of the plant and also animal varieties that live in it. D) The complex interactions that the assorted plant and also animal varieties on a savanna during a drought. E) interaction between every one of the organisms and their physical setting in a tropical rain forest.


11) If the sun were to suddenly avoid providing power to Earth, most ecosystems would certainly vanish. I beg your pardon of the following ecosystems would most likely survive the longest ~ this theoretical disaster? A) dry rain forest B) tundra C) benthic s D) meadow E) desert


12) which of the following is true the detrivores? A) castle recycle chemical aspects directly ago to primary consumers. B) they synthesize necessary molecules that are supplied by primary producers. C) They transform organic products from every trophic levels to inorganic compounds usable by major producers. D) castle secrete enzymes that transform the organic molecule of detritus right into CO₂ and also H₂O. E) Some varieties are autotrophic, if others space heterotrophic.


13) The major role the detrivores in ecosystems is to A) administer a nutritional resource for heterotrophs. B) recycle chemical nutrient to a kind capable of being supplied by autotrophs. C) protect against the buildup that the organic remains of organisms, feces, and so on. D) return power lost come the ecosystem by various other organisms.


14) about 1% the the solar radiation that strikes a plant is converted right into the chemical bond energy of sugars. Why is this amount for this reason low? A) approximately 99% that the solar radiation is convert to warm energy. B) only 1% the the wavelength of visible light are soaked up by photosynthesis pigments. C) many solar energy strikes water and also land surfaces. D) about 99% that the solar radiation is reflected. E) just the green wavelengths are took in by plants for photosynthesis.


15) What percentage of solar radiation striking a tree is converted right into chemical energy? A) 1% B) 10% C) 25% D) 50% E) 100%


16) subtraction of i beg your pardon of the complying with will transform gross primary productivity into net primary productivity? A) the energy had in the standing crop B) the energy used through heterotrophs in respiration C) the energy used through autotrophs in respiration D) the energy fixed by photosynthesis E) all solar energy


17) i m sorry of these ecosystems accounts for the largest amount of Earth"s net major productivity? A) tundra B) savanna C) salt marsh D) open s E) tropic rain forest


18) i m sorry of this ecosystems has actually the greatest net main productivity per square meter? A) savanna B) open s C) boreal forest D) tropic rain forest E) warm forest


19) i m sorry data is most beneficial to measure major productivity in a terrestrial ecosystem? A) temperature readings B) potential evapotranspiration C) soot of solar radiation D) yearly precipitation E) lot of carbon fixed


20) i m sorry of the following is a true statement about mineral nutrients in soils and their implicit for major productivity? A) Globally, phosphorous access is many limiting to major productivity. B) adding a nonlimiting nutrient will certainly stimulate main productivity. C) Adding an ext of a limiting nutrient will increase primary productivity, indefinitely. D) Phosphorous is occasionally unavailable come producers because of leaching. E) Alkaline soils are an ext productive 보다 acidic soils.


21) The full biomass of photosynthesis autotrophs existing in an ecosystem is recognized as A) gross primary productivity. B) standing crop. C) net main productivity. D) second productivity. E) trophic efficiency.


22) exactly how is it the the open ocean produces the greatest net primary productivity the Earth"s ecosystems, however net major productivity every square meter is fairly low? A) oceans contain better concentrations that nutrients contrasted to other ecosystems. B) seas receive a lesser amount of solar energy per unit area. C) Oceans have actually the biggest area of every the ecosystems ~ above Earth. D) s ecosystems have less types diversity. E) Oceanic producers are usually much smaller sized than oceanic consumers.


23) Why is net major production (NPP) a much more useful measurement come an ecosystem ecologist than gross major production (GPP)? A) NPP have the right to be expressed in energy/unit that area/unit of time. B) NPP can be express in terms of carbon fixed by photosynthesis for whole ecosystem. C) NPP to represent the save chemical energy that is available to consumer in the ecosystem. D) NPP is the same as the stand crop. E) NPP shows the price at i beg your pardon the standing chop is made use of by consumers.


24) exactly how is net ecosystem manufacturing (NEP) commonly estimated in ecosystems? A) the proportion of producer to consumer B) the lot of heat energy released by the ecosystem C) the net flux of CO₂ or O₂ in or the end of an ecosystem D) the rate of decomposition by detrivores E) the annual total of just arrive solar radiation per unit of area


25) Aquatic primary productivity is most restricted by which of the following? A) light and also nutrient access B) predation by major consumers C) raised pressure v depth D) air pollution E) temperature


26) Aquatic ecosystems are least likely to be limited by i beg your pardon of the following nutrients? A) nitrogen B) carbon C) phosphorus D) iron E) zinc


27) What is the primary limiting aspect for aquatic productivity? A) press B) lack of nutrient C) light accessibility D) herbivores E) competition


28) which of the following ecosystems would certainly likely have a bigger net main productivity/hectare and also why? A) open up ocean due to the fact that of the total biomass of photosynthesis autotrophs B) grassland since of the small standing chop biomass that outcomes from usage by herbivores and also rapid decomposition C) tropical rain forest due to the fact that of the enormous standing chop biomass and varieties diversity D) cave due come the absence of photosynthesis autotrophs E) tundra due to the fact that of the extremely rapid period of growth throughout the summer season


29) exactly how is it the satellites deserve to detect distinctions in major productivity ~ above Earth? A) Photosynthetic biology absorb more visible irradiate in the 350—750 wavelengths. B) Satellite instruments have the right to detect reflectance patterns of the photosynthetic organisms of different ecosystems. C) perceptible satellite instruments can measure the amount of NADPH created in the summative light reactions of various ecosystems. D) Satellites detect differences by compare the wavelength of irradiate captured and also reflected by photoautotrophs to the quantity of light reaching different ecosystems. E) Satellites detect differences by measure up the lot of water vapor emitted by transpiring producers.


30) i beg your pardon of the complying with lists of organisms is ranked in exactly order from lowest to highest possible percent in manufacturing efficiency? A) mammals, fish, insects B) insects, fish, mammals C) fish, insects, mammals D) insects, mammals, fish E) mammals, insects, fish


31) A 3-hectare lake in the American Midwest suddenly has succumbed to an algal bloom. What is the likely reason of eutrophication in freshwater ecosystems, such together this one? A) boosted solar radiation B) advent of non-native tertiary consumer fish C) nutrient runoff D) accidental advent of a prolific culture of birds E) steel dust blowing right into the lake


32) The lot of chemical energy in consumers" food the is converted to their own new biomass throughout a given time duration is recognized as i m sorry of the following? A) biomass B) standing chop C) biomagnification D) major production E) an additional production


33) What is an additional production? A) energy converted by secondary consumers from major consumers B) solar power that is convert to chemical power by photosynthesis C) food that is converted to new biomass by consumers D) power that is not supplied by consumer for growth and reproductionE) development that take away place throughout the second year that life in consumers


34) how does inefficient transfer of energy amongst trophic levels result in the frequently high endangerment condition of countless top-level predators? A) Top-level predators are destined come have small populations that are sparsely distributed. B) Predators have relatively huge population sizes. C) Predators are much more disease-prone than animals at reduced trophic levels. D) Predators have quick life spans and also short reproductive periods. E) Top-level predators are an ext likely to it is in stricken with parasites.


35) Trophic performance is A) the proportion of net secondary production to assimilation of main production. B) the percent of manufacturing transferred indigenous one trophic level come the next. C) a measure up of just how nutrients are cycled from one trophic level come the next. D) usually greater than production efficiencies. E) about 90% in most ecosystems.


36) Owls eat rats, mice, shrews, and little birds. I think that, over a period of time, an owl spend 5,000 J of pet material. The owl loses 2,300 J in feces and also owl pellets and also uses 2,500 J because that cellular respiration. What is the primary effectiveness of this owl? A) 0.02% B) 1% C) 4% D) 10% E) 40%


37) Why walk a vegetarian leaving a smaller eco-friendly footprint 보다 an omnivore? A) Fewer pets are slaughtered for human consumption. B) over there is an excess of tree biomass in all terrestrial ecosystems. C) Vegetarians should ingest much less chemical power than omnivores. D) Vegetarians require much less protein than carry out omnivores. E) eating meat is an inefficient way of getting photosynthetic productivity.


38) For most terrestrial ecosystems, pyramids the numbers, biomass, and energy are basically the samethey have actually a vast base and also a narrow top. The primary reason because that this pattern is the A) second consumers and also top carnivores need less power than producers. B) at every step, power is lost from the mechanism as a result of maintaining the organisms alive. C) as matter passes with ecosystems, several of it is shed to the environment. D) biomagnification of toxicity materials boundaries the secondary consumers and top carnivores. E) top carnivores and secondary consumers have actually a more general diet than main producers.


39) i m sorry of the adhering to is mostly responsible because that limiting the variety of trophic levels in many ecosystems? A) plenty of primary and higher-order consumers space opportunistic feeders. B) Decomposers compete with higher-order consumers for nutrients and energy. C) Nutrient cycles involve both abiotic and biotic contents of ecosystems. D) Nutrient cycling rates tend come be restricted by decomposition. E) power transfer between tropic levels is in virtually all cases less 보다 20% efficient.


40) i m sorry trophic level is most fragile to extinction? A) producer level B) primary customer level C) secondary consumer level D) tertiary customer level E) decomposer level


41) an additional consumers that deserve to eat only primary consumers get what percent of the power fixed by major producers in a common field ecosystem? A) 0.1% B) 1% C) 10% D) 20% E) 80%


42) which statement finest describes what eventually happens to the chemical energy that is no converted to brand-new biomass in the procedure of energy transfer between trophic levels in one ecosystem? A) that is undigested and winds up in the feces and also is not passed top top to greater trophic levels. B) it is used by biology to keep their life processes through the reaction of to move respiration. C) Heat created by moving respiration is used by heterotrophs to thermoregulate. D) it is got rid of as feces or is dissipated into room as heat in accordance through the 2nd law that thermodynamics. E) it is recycled by decomposers to a form that is once again usable by main producers.


43) think about the food chain grass → grasshopper → mouse → line → hawk. Exactly how much of the chemical energy fixed by photosynthesis the the grass (100%) is accessible to the hawk? A) 0.01% B) 0.1% C) 1% D) 10% E) 60%


44) If the flow of power in an arctic ecosystem goes with a basic food chain, perhaps entailing humans, starting from phytoplankton to zooplankton come fish to seals to polar bears, then which that the following could be true? A) Polar bears can provide much more food for humans than seals can. B) The full biomass the the fish is reduced than that of the seals. C) Seal meat probably contains the highest possible concentrations that fat-soluble toxins. D) Seal populations are larger than fish populations. E) The fish have the right to potentially provide much more food for people than the seal meat can.


45) Nitrogen is obtainable to plants just in the type of A) N2 in the atmosphere. B) nitrite ions in the soil. C) uric acid from pet excretions. D) amino acids from decomposing plant and animal proteins. E) nitrate ions in the soil.


46) i m sorry of the adhering to locations is the reservoir for nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle? A) atmosphere B) sedimentary radical C) fossilized plant and animal stays (coal, oil, and also natural gas) D) plant and animal biomass E) soil


47) i m sorry of the following locations is the reservoir because that carbon because that the carbon cycle? A) atmosphere B) sediments and sedimentary rocks C) fossilized plant and animal continues to be (coal, oil, and also natural gas) D) plant and animal biomass E) every one of the above


48) In the nitrogen cycle, the bacteria that replenish the environment with N2 room A) Rhizobium bacteria. B) nitrifying bacteria. C) denitrifying bacteria. D) methanogenic protozoans. E) nitrogen-fixing bacteria.


49) how does phosphorus normally enter ecosystems? A) to move respiration B) photosynthesis C) absent weathering D) vulcanism E) atmospheric phosphorous gas


50) i beg your pardon of the following is an instance of a regional biogeochemical cycle? A) O₂ exit by oak trees in a forest B) CO₂ took in by phytoplankton in the open ocean C) overabundance NO₃- converted to N₂ through denitrifying soil bacteria D) phosphorous being took in from the floor by a corn tree E) organic carbon continues to be of a sheet being convert to CO₂ by a fungus


51) which of the complying with statements is correct around biogeochemical cycling? A) The phosphorus cycle involves the recycling that atmospheric phosphorus. B) The phosphorus cycle involves the weathering the rocks. C) The carbon bike is a localized cycle the primarily entails the burning of fossil fuels. D) The carbon cycle has actually maintained a continuous atmospheric concentration of CO₂ because that the previous million years. E) The nitrogen cycle entails movement of diatomic nitrogen in between the biotic and abiotic materials of the ecosystem.


52) i beg your pardon of the adhering to properly web links the nutrient come its reservoir? A) nitrogenionic nitrogen in the floor B) wateratmospheric water vapor C) carbondissolved CO₂ in aquatic ecosystems D) phosphoroussedimentary rocks E) every one of the options are correct.


53) In terms of nutrient cycling, why does hardwood harvesting in a pleasant forest reason less environmental devastation than hardwood harvesting in dry rain forests? A) trees are typically less plenty of in pleasant forests, so fewer nutrients will certainly be eliminated from the temperate forest ecosystem during a harvest. B) Temperate woodland tree varieties require fewer nutrients to endure than their tropical counterpart species, for this reason a harvest clears fewer nutrient from the pleasant ecosystem. C) The warmer temperature in the tropics affect rain forest varieties to assimilate nutrients more slowly, so tropical nutrient absorb is lot slower 보다 in temperate forests. D) over there are far fewer decomposers in dry rain forests, so transforming organic matter right into usable nutrients is a slower procedure than in temperate woodland ecosystems. E) usual harvests remove up to 75% of the nutrient in the woody trunks of tropical rain woodland trees, leaving nutrient-impoverished soils behind.


54) Why perform logged tropic rain forest soils commonly have nutrient-poor soils? A) Tropical bedrock contains tiny phosphorous. B) Logging results in floor temperatures that are lethal to nitrogen-fixing bacteria. C) many of the nutrient in the ecosystem are removed in the harvest timber. D) The cation exchange volume of the soil is reversed together a an outcome of logging. E) nutrients evaporate conveniently into the environment in the post-logged forest.


55) What is the first step in ecosystem restoration? A) to gain back the physical framework B) to reclaim native species that have actually been extirpated as result of disturbance C) to eliminate competitive invasive varieties D) to identify the limiting factors of the producers E) to eliminate toxic pollutants


56) What is the score of repair ecology? A) to replace a destroyed ecosystem with a an ext suitable ecosystem for the area B) to speed up the restoration of a degraded ecosystem C) to fully restore a disturbed ecosystem come its former undisturbed state D) to protect against further destruction by protecting one area through park condition E) to regulate competition between varieties in human-altered ecosystems


57) which of the complying with statements is true? A) an ecosystem"s trophic framework determines the price at which power cycles within the system. B) in ~ any point in time, the is impossible for consumers to outnumber producers in one ecosystem. C) Chemoautotrophic prokaryotes near deep-sea vents are main producers. D) There has been a well-documented boost in atmospheric nitrogen end the past several decades. E) The reservoir that ecosystem phosphorous is the atmosphere.


58) In a usual grassland community, i m sorry of the adhering to has the the smallest biomass? A) eagle B) line C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass


59) In a usual grassland community, i m sorry of the adhering to is the major consumer? A) eagle B) snake C) shrew D) grasshopper E) grass


60) once levels the CO₂ space experimentally increased in a common grassland community, C₃ plants generally respond with a higher increase in efficiency than C₄ plants. This is due to the fact that A) C₃ tree are an ext efficient in their usage of CO₂. B) C₃ plants room able to obtain the same amount of CO₂ by maintaining their stomata open up for shorter periods that time. C) C₄ plants don"t usage CO₂ as their resource of carbon. D) C₃ plants room more restricted by CO₂ access because they lack mechanisms to prevent transpirational water loss. E) C₃ plants have special adaptations for CO₂ uptake, such as bigger stomata.


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Food internet for a certain terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent power flow and letters stand for species) 61) examine this food internet for a details terrestrial ecosystem. Which types is autotrophic? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food net for a certain terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and also letters stand for species) 62) research this food net for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Which types is most most likely a decomposer top top this food web? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food internet for a specific terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and letters represent species) 63) study this food internet for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Varieties C is toxicity to predators. Which species is most likely to advantage from gift a mimic that C? A) A B) B C) C D) D E) E



Food web for a particular terrestrial ecosystem (arrows represent energy flow and letters stand for species) 64) research this food web for a certain terrestrial ecosystem. Which pair of species could be omnivores? A) A and also B B) A and D C) B and C D) C and also D E) C and E


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Diagram that a food internet (arrows represent power flow and also letters represent species) 65) If the figure above represents a terrestrial food web, the combined biomass the C + D would most likely be A) better than the biomass of A. B) less than the biomass the H. C) better than the biomass that B. D) less than the biomass the A + B. E) much less than the biomass the E.


Diagram of a food net (arrows represent energy flow and letters stand for species) 66) If the figure above represents a maritime food web, the the smallest organism might be A) A. B) F. C) C. D) I. E) E.


67) ~ above the chart of the nitrogen cycle, which number to represent nitrite (NO₂)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4


68) ~ above the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number to represent ammonia (NH₄+)? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4


69) on the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number represents nitrogen-fixing bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7


70) ~ above the diagram of the nitrogen cycle, i beg your pardon number to represent nitrifying bacteria? A) 5 B) 6 C) 7


71) mean you space studying the nitrogen cycling in a pond ecosystem end the course of a month. If you room collecting data, a flock of 100 Canada geese lands and also spends the night during a loss migration. What could you perform to get rid of error in your research as a result of this event? A) find out exactly how much nitrogen is consumed in plant material by a Canada goose over around a 12-hour period, main point this number through 100, and include that amount come the total nitrogen in the ecosystem. B) find out just how much nitrogen is removed by a Canada goose over about a 12-hour period, main point this number by 100, and subtract that amount indigenous the total nitrogen in the ecosystem. C) find out just how much nitrogen is consumed and eliminated by a Canada goose over around a 12-hour duration and main point this number by 100; go into this +/- value right into the nitrogen spending plan of the ecosystem. D) perform nothing. The Canada geese visitation to the lake would have actually negligible affect on the nitrogen spending plan of the pond. E) put a network over the pond so that no an ext migrating flocks deserve to land ~ above the pond and alter the nitrogen balance the the pond.


72) As big as it is, the s is nutrient-limited. If you want to inspection this, one reasonable method would it is in to A) monitor whale migrations in order to identify where most nutrients space located. B) observe Antarctic ocean productivity indigenous year to year to check out if it changes. C) experimentally enrich some locations of the ocean and compare their efficiency to that of untreated areas. D) compare nutrient concentrations between the photic zone and the benthic zone in various maritime locations. E) contrast nutrient uptake by autotrophs in marine locations that are various temperatures.


73) A porcupine eats 3,000 J of plant material. Of this, 2,100 J is indigestible and also is eliminated as feces, 800 J are offered in to move respiration, and also 100 J are offered for growth and reproduction. What is the approximate production efficiency of this animal? A) 0.03% B) 3% C) 10% D) 27% E) 33%


74) i beg your pardon of the complying with organisms is erroneously paired with its trophic level? A) cyanobacteriumprimary producer B) grasshopperprimary customer C) zooplanktonprimary producer D) eagletertiary customer E) fungusdetritivore


75) which of this ecosystems has the shortest net primary production every square meter? A) a salt wetland B) an open ocean C) a coral reef D) a grassland E) a tropical rain forest


76) The technique that uses ecological values to returning degraded ecosystems come a more natural state is well-known as A) population viability analysis. B) see ecology. C) conservation ecology. D) restoration ecology. E) resource conservation.


77) Nitrifying bacteria take part in the nitrogen cycle mostly by A) converting nitrogen gas to ammonia.B) publication ammonium from organic compounds, for this reason returning it come the soil.C) convert ammonia come nitrogen gas, which returns to the atmosphere. D) converting ammonium to nitrate, which tree absorb. E) combine nitrogen into amino acids and organic compounds.


78) i beg your pardon of the adhering to has the greatest impact on the rate of chemistry cycling in one ecosystem? A) the ecosystem"s price of major production B) the production performance of the ecosystem"s consumer C) the price of decomposition in the ecosystem D) the trophic efficiency of the ecosystem E) the location of the nutrient reservoirs in the ecosystem


79) The ha Brook watershed deforestation experiment yielded all of the complying with results except: A) many minerals to be recycled in ~ a woodland ecosystem. B) The circulation of minerals out of a herbal watershed was offset by minerals flow in. C) Deforestation raised water runoff. D) The nitrate concentration in waters draining the deforested area became dangerously high. E) Calcium levels stayed high in the soil of deforested areas.

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80) i m sorry of the following would be considered an example of bioremediation? A) including nitrogen-fixing microbe to a degraded ecosystem to boost nitrogen access B) using a bulldozer come regrade a piece mine C) dredging a flow bottom to remove contaminated sediments D) reconfiguring the channel that a river E) adding seeds that a chromium-accumulating tree to soil contaminated by chromium


81) If you applied a fungicide to a cornfield, what would certainly you expect to occur to the rate of decomposition and net ecosystem production (NEP)? A) Both decomposition rate and also NEP would decrease. B) Both decomposition rate and NEP would certainly increase. C) Neither would certainly change. D) Decomposition price would increase and also NEP would decrease. E) Decomposition rate would decrease and also NEP would increase.