l>Urinary System

Urinary device

features Dialysis patient Dialysis animation The attributes of the urinary mechanism include: 1. Regulation the ion concentration
2. Regulation the blood volume andpressure
3. Stabilization the blood pH
4. Conservation of nutrient
5. Removed of essential moleculesand toxin
6. Synthetic of calcitriol
Kidneyshttp://www.jeremyswan.com/anatomy/204/html/12b.html The kidneys are paired organs situated lateral come the vertebral column in between T12 and L3. The kidney is around 5 in. (12 cm) long, 2.5 in. (6 cm) broad and 1 in. (3 cm) thick. Over there is a deep indentation dubbed the hilus on the medial side of every kidney indigenous which the ureters and blood ship enter and leave. The hilus leads to a space within the kidney called the renal sinus.

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The kidneys room retroperitoneal in position and are hosted in place by and are supported by the adhering to layers the connective tissue: 1. Renal capsule - a layer of dense connective tissue on the outer surface of every kidney.
2. Adipose capsule - a layer ofadipose tissue neighboring the renal capsule that protects and supports the kidney.
3. Renal fascia - a thick outerlayer of connective tissue that anchors the kidney to neighboring structures.
Sectional Anatomy A longitudinal cut v the kidney discover the complying with features:
Cortex - outer layer of kidney incontact through capsule.
Medulla - the tissue internal to the cortex that has actually the following features: Renal pyramids - conical (in three dimensions) or triangle (in cut section) structures with the base lying versus the cortex and the tip, called the renal papilla, pointing into the renal sinus.
Renal columns - this is cortical tissue extending between the renal pyramids.
within the renal sinus, the renal papilla of each is surrounding by a minor calyx that drains the urine that drips indigenous the papilla. The minor calyces fuse to type a funnel-shaped renal pelvis. The renal pelvis tapers to form the ureter.
Nephron YouTube - function of the Nephron (Nephron tutorial) each kidney has over a million blind-ended tubules called nephrons. Each nephron is composed of the adhering to parts:
Glomerular (Bowman"s) capsule This is the blind finish of the tube that is indented by a tuft that capillaries referred to as the glomerulus. Blood enters the capillaries v an afferent arteriole and blood drains from the capillaries with an efferent arteriole. The place where arterioles enter and leave the capsule is the vascular pole.
The capsule is inside wall on the outside and also inside by the complying with epithelia:
Capsular epithelium - This is the outer wall surface of the capsule and also consists of simple squamous epithelium.
Glomerular epithelium - The cell that type this epithelium rest directly on the capillaries the the glomerulus and consists that octopus-shaped cells dubbed podocytes.
The procedure of filtration occurs in the glomerular capsule. The blood the enters the glomerulus is filtered across three physical obstacles :
1. Capillary endothelium - The glomerular capillaries are porous.
2. Lamina densa - This is extracellular product that supports both the capillary endothelium and also the glomerular epithelium.
3. Glomerular epithelium -The podocytes that form this epithelium have actually processes called foot processes. The foot processes have actually smaller processes referred to as pedicels that interdigitate v one another. The space between the interdigitating pedicels kind filtration slits through which the filtrate passes.
Proximal Convoluted Tubule The glomerular capsule at the tubular pole continues as the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). The PCT consists of simple cuboidal epithelium whose apical surface is inside wall by microvilli.
The PCT is the "mass reabsorber". The bulk of the water, ions, necessary nutrients and also any protein is reabsorbed in this segment of the tubule.
Loop the Henle The PCT straightens out and forms the loop the Henle. The loop the Henle has a descending limb which is directed towards the tip of the pyramid, renders an hairpin turn, and then becomes an ascending body that parallels the diminish limb.
The loop of Henle create an osmotic gradient within the medulla that enables the kidney come reabsorb water and produce a urine the is much more concentrated than the body fluids. The loop of Henle additionally reabsorbs about 25% the the water and also continues come reabsorb ions.
Distal Convoluted Tubule once the ascending body of the loop the Henle returns to the cortex it becomes the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The DCT is lined by simple cuboidal epithelium that has actually fewer microvilli.
The DCT additional refines the filtrate by proceeding to reabsorb ion but also by secreting ions including H+ and K+.
Collecting Ducts The nephrons are linked to collecting ducts by connecting tubules. The collecting ducts descend into the medulla and converge on the papilla. As the collecting ducts converge in ~ the papilla lock fuse to type larger ducts that are referred to as papillary ducts.
Blood supply to kidney The nephrons room able to do their features of filtration, reabsorption and secretion because of their intimate and an accurate association v the blood ship that go into the kidney.
The renal artery brings blood to the kidney and enters the kidney through the hilus. Within the renal sinus the renal artery branches into segmental arteries. The segmental arteries enter the medulla v the renal columns wherein the arteries are dubbed the interlobar arteries. The interlobar arteries take trip along the bases the the pyramids whereby they are called the arcuate arteries. The arcuate arteries offer off branches the ascend in the cortex called cortical radiate arteries. The afferent arterioles branch off the cortical radiate arteries (a.k.a. Interlobular arteries) and bring blood to the glomerulus. Blood drains native the glomerulus through the efferent arteriole. The efferent arterioles than type peritubular capillaries that wrap about the tubules the the nephrons.
Blood drains from the kidneys by method of veins that turning back the direction the blood flow into the kidney in the arteries. Hence, blood drains with the cortical radiate vein (interlobular vein), arcuate vein, interlobar vein, segmental vein and renal vein.
To summarize: Renal a. -> segmental a. -> interlobar a. -> arcuate a. -> cortical radiate a. -> afferent arteriole -> glomerulus -> efferent arteriole -> peritubular capillaries -> cortical radiate v. -> arcuate v. -> interlobar v. -> segmental v. -> renal v.
Structures because that Urine Transport, Storage and Elimination
Ureters The ureters space muscular tubes that transport urine come the urinary bladder.
Urinary Bladder The urinary bladder is a distensible hollow body organ that stores the urine till elimination.

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Urethra The urethra is a muscular tube that connects the urinary bladder come the exterior and permits elimination the the urine.