The task of steels Classifying Metals based upon Activity
Predicting the Product that Main group Metal reactions

The activity ofMetals

The primary difference in between metals is the ease v whichthey undergo ptcouncil.netical reactions. The elements toward the bottomleft corner of the regular table room the steels that room themost active in the feeling of gift the many reactive.Lithium, sodium, and potassium every react through water, for example.The rate of this reaction increases as us go under this column,however, since these aspects become much more active together they becomemore metallic.

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Classifying MetalsBased top top Activity

The steels are often separated into four classes on the communication oftheir activity, as presented in the table below.

Common Metals split into great on theBasis of your Activity

Class i Metals: The active Metals
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs (Group IA)
Ca, Sr, Ba (Group IIA)
Class II Metals: The Less active Metals
Mg, Al, Zn, Mn
Class III Metals: The structural Metals
Cr, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu
Class IV Metals: The Coinage Metals
Ag, Au, Pt, Hg

The most active metals are so reactive that they readilycombine with the O2 and H2O vapor in theatmosphere and are because of this stored under one inert liquid, suchas mineral oil. These metals are uncovered exclusively in teams IAand IIA the the periodic table.

Metals in the second class room slightly less active. Theydon"t react v water in ~ room temperature, but they reactrapidly v acids.

The third class has metals such together chromium, iron, tin,and lead, i beg your pardon react just with strong acids. It also containseven less active metals such as copper, which only dissolves whentreated v acids that can oxidize the metal.

Metals in the fourth course are so unreactive lock areessentially inert at room temperature. These steels are right formaking jewel or coins because they perform not react with the vastmajority of the substances v which they come into dailycontact. Together a result, they are often dubbed the "coinagemetals."

Predicting the Productof Main group Metal reactions

The product of plenty of reactions between main group metals andother aspects can be predicted native the electron configurationsof the elements.

Example: think about the reaction in between sodium and chlorine toform sodium chloride. It takes an ext energy to remove an electronfrom a salt atom to kind an Na+ ion than we obtain backwhen this electron is added to a chlorine atom to type a Cl-ion. As soon as these ions room formed, however, the force of attractionbetween these ion liberates enough power to make the followingreaction exothermic.

Na(s) + 1/2 Cl2(g) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/ptcouncil.netistry/"> NaCl(s)
Ho = -411.3 kJ/mol

The net effect of this reaction is to transfer one electronfrom a neutral sodium atom to a neutral chlorine atom to form Na+and Cl- ions that have actually filled-shell configurations.


Potassium and also hydrogen have the complying with electronconfigurations.

K: 4s1 H: 1s1

When these elements react, an electron needs to be transferredfrom one element to the other. We deserve to decide which facet shouldlose one electron by to compare the first ionization energy forpotassium (418.8 kJ/mol) v that because that hydrogen (1312.0 kJ/mol).

Potassium is much more likely to shed anelectron in this reaction, which means that hydrogen gains anelectron to type K+ and also H- ions.

See more: If An Atom Is Reduced In A Redox Reaction What Must Happen To Another Atom In The System


Practice trouble 1:

Write a well balanced equation for the complying with reaction.

Li(s) + O2(s) " width="17" height="9" sgi_fullpath="/disk2/ptcouncil.netistry/">