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Chapter 9 – Organic Compounds of Oxygen
9.1 Overview to Compounds that Contain Oxygen
9.2 Alcohols and also PhenolsClassification of AlcoholsProperties of AlcoholsGlycolsPhenols
9.3 EthersProperties of Ethers
9.4 Aldehydes and also KetonesProperties of Aldehydes and also KetonesAldehydesKetonesBoiling Points and SolubilityAldehydes and Ketones in Nature
9.5 Carboxylic Acids and also EstersProperties of Carboxylic Acids and EstersCarboxylic AcidsEstersBoiling Points, Melting Points and SolubilityCommonly Used Carboxylic Acids and also Esters
9.6 Reactions of Oxygen-Containing CompoundsAlcoholsDehydration (Elimination) ReactionsOxidation ReactionsAldehydes and KetonesOxidation ReactionsReduction ReactionsAddition Reactions through Alcohols (Hemiacetals and Hemiketals)Reactions that create Acetals or KetalsCarboxylic Acids
The Acidity of Carboxylic AcidsCarboxylic Acids and the Formation of SaltsFormation of Esters from Carboxylic Acids and also AlcoholsHydrolysis of Esters
9.7 Chapter Summary
Photograph By: A. Savin
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9.1 Review to Compounds that Contain Oxygen
In this chapter you will be introduced to the major organic functional groups that contain oxygen. This contains alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and also esters. Figure 9.1 provides the standard organic practical teams for these compounds and the IUPAC sufsolve that is offered to name these compounds. While you will not have to formally name finish structures, you should have the ability to recognize functional groups consisted of within compounds based upon their IUPAC names. For instance, an alcohol is an organic compound with a hydroxyl (-OH) sensible group on an aliphatic carbon atom. Because -OH is the sensible group of all alcohols, we regularly reexisting alcohols by the basic formula ROH, wbelow R is an alkyl group. The IUPAC nomenclature guidelines use the suffix ‘-ol’ to signify straightforward compounds that contain alcohols. An example is ethanol (CH3CH2OH).
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Figure 9.1 Usual Organic Functional Groups that Contain Oxygen. The IUPAC suffixes provided in naming easy organic molecules are listed in the chart
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9.2 Alcohols and also PhenolsGroup of Alcohols
Several of the properties and reactivity of alcohols depfinish on the number of carbon atoms attached to the specific carbon atom that is attached to the -OH group. Alcohols have the right to be grouped into 3 classes on this basis.
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Properties of Alcohols
Alcohols can be thought about derivatives of water (H2O; additionally composed as HOH).