In his decided to Congress, president Franklin Delano Roosevelt claimed that the Japanese strike on Pearl harbor on December 7, 1941, to be "a day which will certainly live in infamy." The assault launched the joined States totally into the 2 theaters of world War II. Before Pearl Harbor, the joined States had actually been connected in the European battle only, by offering England and also other anti-fascist countries of Europe v munitions.

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The assault on Pearl Harbor also launched a rashes of fear around national security, specifically on the West Coast. In February 1942, simply two months later, president Roosevelt, together commander-in-chief, issued executive Order 9066 that brought about the internment of Japanese Americans. The stimulate authorized the Secretary the War and also military leaders to evacuate every persons considered a danger from the West shore to internment camps, that the government called "relocation centers," additional inland.Read more...

Primary Sources

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The Hirano household Posing v a photograph of a United states Serviceman at the Colorado flow Internment Camp in Poston, Arizona


High institution Campus in ~ Heart mountain Internment Camp in Wyoming — classes are hosted in Tarpaper-covered, Barrack-style Buildings, 6/1943





Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942 – created by basic DeWitt, who supervised the Internment that Japanese-Americans, offering a Favorable rundown of the "Evacuation Program"


This 10-minute film clip referred to as "Japanese-Americans" (1945) comes from Army-Navy display screen Magazine, a biweekly film collection for servicemen during civilization War II. That highlights the 100th Infantry Battalion, composed largely of Japanese-Americans.



Additional background Information

Prior come the outbreak of world War II, the commonwealth Bureau of examination (FBI) had identified German, Italian, and also Japanese aliens who were doubt of gift potential adversary agents; and also they were maintained under surveillance. Following the attack at Pearl Harbor, government suspicion developed not only approximately aliens who came from opponent nations, but around all people of Japanese descent, whether international born (issei) or American citizens (nisei). Throughout congressional committee hearings, representatives of the room of Justice increased logistical, constitutional, and ethical objections. Regardless, the task was turned over to the U.S. Military as a protection matter.

The entire West coast was deemed a military area and also was divided into military zones. Executive, management Order 9066 authorized military leaders to exclude, civilians from armed forces areas. Return the language of the stimulate did not specify any ethnic group, Lieutenant general John L. DeWitt that the west Defense Command proceeded come announce curfews that had only Japanese Americans. Next, he motivated voluntary evacuation by Japanese american from a minimal number of areas; around seven percent the the total Japanese American populace in these areas complied.

On in march 29, 1942, under the government of the executive order, DeWitt issued public Proclamation No. 4, which started the forced evacuation and also detention that West coast residents the Japanese-American family tree on a 48-hour notice. Only a couple of days before the proclamation, on in march 21, Congress had passed Public law 503, which made violation of executive, management Order 9066 a misdemeanor punishable by approximately one year in prison and also a $5,000 fine.

Because the the late of "public danger," all Japanese within varied distances from the Pacific coast were targeted. Uneven they to be able come dispose the or make arrangements for treatment of their property within a couple of days, their homes, farms, businesses, and also most of their exclusive belongings were lost forever.

From the finish of March to August, around 112,000 people were sent to "assembly centers" – frequently racetracks or fairgrounds – wherein they waited and were tagged to indicate the place of a permanent "relocation center" that would be their home for the rest of the war. Nearly 70,000 of the evacuees to be American citizens. There to be no dues of disloyalty versus any of this citizens, nor to be there any vehicle through which they might appeal their loss of residential or commercial property and an individual liberty.

"Relocation centers" to be situated countless miles inland, frequently in remote and also desolate locales. Sites included Tule Lake, California; Minidoka, Idaho; Manzanar, California; Topaz, Utah; Jerome, Arkansas; love Mountain, Wyoming; Poston, Arizona; Granada, Colorado; and also Rohwer, Arkansas. (Incarceration prices were substantially lower in the are of Hawaii, wherein Japanese Americans made up over one-third the the population and their labor was essential to sustain the economy. However, martial law had actually been declared in Hawaii instantly following the Pearl port attack, and also the army issued numerous military orders, some applicable only to persons of Japanese ancestry.)

In the internment camps, 4 or 5 families, with their sparse collections of clothing and possessions, shared tar-papered army-style barracks. Most resided in these problems for nearly three year or an ext until the end of the war. Progressively some insulation was added to the barracks and also lightweight partitions were added to make them a little more comfortable and somewhat private. Life took on some acquainted routines that socializing and school. However, eating in usual facilities, using common restrooms, and also having minimal opportunities for job-related interrupted other social and cultural patterns. People who resisted were sent to a one-of-a-kind camp at Tule Lake, California, whereby dissidents to be housed.

In 1943 and also 1944 the federal government assembled a combat unit the Japanese Americans because that the europe theater. It became the 442d Regimental Combat Team and also gained fame together the most very decorated of world War II. Their army record bespoke your patriotism.

As the war attracted to a close, internment camps were slowly evacuated. While part persons that Japanese ancestry returned to their hometowns, rather sought brand-new surroundings. Because that example, the Japanese-American community of Tacoma, Washington, had actually been sent out to three different centers; only 30 percent went back to Tacoma after ~ the war. Japanese americans from Fresno had gone to Manzanar; 80 percent returned to their hometown.

The internment of persons of Japanese family tree during human being War II sparked constitutional and political debate. During this period, 3 Japanese-American citizens tested the constitutionality the the relocation and also curfew orders with legal actions: Gordon Hirabayashi, Fred Korematsu, and Mitsuye Endo. Hirabayashi and Korematsu received an adverse judgments; yet Mitsuye Endo, after a lengthy battle through lesser courts, was identified to be "loyal" and allowed to leaving the Topaz, Utah, facility.

Justice Murphy the the supreme Court express the complying with opinion inEx parte Mitsuye Endo:

I join in the opinion that the Court, but I am of the watch that detention in Relocation Centers of persons of Japanese family tree regardless of loyalty is not just unauthorized by conference or the Executive however is another example that the unconstitutional resort to racism natural in the whole evacuation program. As declared more fully in my dissenting opinion in Fred Toyosaburo Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 , 65 S.Ct. 193, racial discrimination of this nature bears no reasonable relation to armed forces necessity and is utterly international to the ideals and traditions of the American people.

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In 1988, conference passed, and President Reagan signed, Public regulation 100-383 –the civil Liberties plot of 1988 –that acknowledged the injustice of internment, apologized for it, and detailed a $20,000 cash payment come each person who to be interned.

One that the most stunning ironies in this episode of American polite liberties to be articulated by one internee who, as soon as told that the Japanese were put in those camps because that their own protection, countered "If we were put there because that our protection, why to be the weapons at the safety towers spicy inward, rather of outward?"

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