A negative enthalpy readjust represents an exothermic change where power is released from the reaction, a hopeful enthalpy readjust represents one endothermic reaction where power is taken in native the surroundings. When deciding if a adjust should it is in exothermic or endothermic, and also calculating the enthalpy change, we room basically working out how countless bonds we"ve broken and also how plenty of we"ve formed. Bond breaking calls for energy, and forming bonds releases energy. This uses to much more than simply ptcouncil.netvalent bonds, when forces of attraction in between molecules ae created this additionally releases energy and vice versa. In functioning out the enthalpy change we are efficiently just including up energies gained and lost in the reaction. Born-haber cycles are a method of doing this, we include up the enthalpies the each readjust that is occurring in the reaction. For example, as soon as working out the enthalpy of development of NaCl, when the sodium and chloride ion ptcouncil.netme with each other to kind NaCl, this is one ptcouncil.netmponent of the overall reaction recognized as the lattice enthalpy, i m sorry we add up v the various other ptcouncil.netmponents (bond energies, ionisation energies etc) to recognize the overall enthalpy the formation. Have to the lattice enthalpy it is in positve or negative? Well, we room bringing with each other two oppositely fee ions, forming one ionic bond, this will release energy, it"s an exothermic change, the lattice enthalpy must be negative. This same logic have the right to be applied to all other thermodynamic changes. 




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Describe the setup of protons, neutrons and electrons in one atom the Neon (Atomic No. 10, Atomic weight 20.18). You may use diagrams to aid you.
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