Every Japanese particle has numerous purposes and uses, and we walk not have the time in that short article to sheathe the supplies of each bit completely. So, beginning with this article on the Japanese corpuscle のno, よyo, ね ne, and also か ka we room doing a series of particle articles (how numerous times have the right to you say the in a row?) that go into depth ~ above the uses of three to five particles in ~ a time.
You could find this Japanese particles short article useful:Japanese particle: No の
No is really important bit that features in very different ways depending upon its ar in a sentence.
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Functions of NO1. Possessive particle
The first function that many students discover for の no is its role as a own particle. When placed after a noun, it serves the same function as one apostrophe+s in English:
Kore wa Kawa-chan no kuruma desu
This is Kawa-chan’s car.
However, since the attributes of own の no are a good deal wider than the features of apostrophe+s in English, the is perhaps far better to think of own の no as being comparable to the English word “of.”
For example, the Japanese title of the Studio Ghibli film “Ponyo” is 崖の上のポニョ (“Gake no Ue no Ponyo”), or precise “Ponyo of above of the cliff.” In this fashion, an alternate translation of the sentence around Kawa-chan’s auto could it is in “This is the auto of Kawa-chan.”2. Explanation particle
If you hear to Japanese music or clock Japanese tv shows, you have actually probably additionally noticed that の no is generally placed in ~ the end (or close to the end) the statements. This is の no’s second function, together an explanation particle.
When の no is put at the finish of a statement, it frequently indicates the the statement is to plan to define something or to provide information. This role can be provided in casual speech as well as polite speech:
かわちゃんは大学生なの。 or かわちゃんは大学生なの(です)。
Kawa-chan wa daigakusei na no (desu)
Kawa-chan is a college student.
This explain could be a response to any number of things, such as “Why is she so busy?” or “Wow, ns didn’t realize Kawa-chan had already graduated high school!,” etc.
かわちゃんはピアノを弾けるの。 or かわちゃんはピアノを弾けるの(です)。
Kawa-chan wa piano o hikeru no (desu)
Kawa-chan can play piano
This statement likewise could it is in a solution to any variety of things, such together “That’s impressive that she can sight-read music,” etc.Note:
If her statement ends in a noun or a na-adjective, the “na” prior to the の no must be included. Also, note that if her statement ends through a verb, the verb will certainly be in short kind whether you room speaking politely or casually – as soon as speaking politely, a “desu” will just be added after the の no particle.3. Concern Particle
The third function of の no is a concern particle. The sentence structure for this function is the very same as the explanation function, yet is only provided when speak casually. For example, we can re-use the exact same sentence as above, yet simply readjust the intonation:
Kawa-chan wa piano o hikeru no?
Kawa-chan theatre piano?
However, it would sound strange to use の no as a question bit with polite -masu verbs. の no as a question particle deserve to sometimes be an unified with the various other question particle か ka. Utilizing both question particles at once as protest to の no alone makes the question sound somewhat more masculine, and also also an ext surprised:
Kawa-chan wa piano o hikeru no ka?
Kawa-chan plays piano?
The fourth function of の no is combining it with other particles to enable verb paragraph to walk where other parts of speech such together objects or subjects would generally go.
For example, a direct object is significant with the fragment を wo, together in the sentence 宿題を忘れた shukudai o wasureta (I forgot the homework). A straight object is usually a noun, so to do a verb expression a direct object, we must combine の no with the direct object particle:
Shukudai o suru no o wasureta
I forgot to do the homework.
Similarly, us can integrate の no with the subject particle が ga to make a verb phrase right into a subject, because subjects (like straight objects) are generally nouns:
Piano o hiku no ga suki desu
I like to beat piano.Japanese Particle: Yo よ
よ yo is used primarily at the really end the sentences. It deserve to be used with any type of kind of sentence, causal or polite. When a sentence ends with よ yo, it reasons the sentence to sound more emphatic. For example:
Kyou wa doyoubi desu
Today is Saturday.
Kyou wa doyoubi desu yo
Today is Saturday.
Usage that Yo Particle1. For extra emphasis
When よ yo is added, the meaning of the sentence doesn’t necessarily change, however takes on a nuance of informing someone something they were not mindful of or had actually forgotten. Or, it may simply show that you space placing extra focus on the sentence because that a different reason.
よ yo is a fairly mild-sounding emphatic particle, and also is used by civilization of all ages and also genders. You may sometimes hear ぞ zo and ぜ ze used instead of よ yo; this particles have a rougher and also less polite sound and also therefore have tendency to be used by men much more than by women.
Like plenty of sentence-ending particles, よ yo is occasionally used with semi-rhetorical question-statements. For example, the commonly heard exclamation なんだよ nan da yo literally method “What is it?!,” yet is used an in similar way to the English “Seriously?” or “Aw man, how come?”2. As soon as invoking or calling something or someone
In rare cases, you may also see よ yo placed ~ a surname or a noun. As soon as よ yo is supplied this way, it is indicating that the speak is invoking or calling top top the person or thing. This usage of よ yo is greatly seen in music, fantasy movies, titles, and et cetera.Japanese Particle: Ne ね
Usage the Ne Particle
ね ne can be supplied with any kind of kind of sentence, polite or casual, and also is often elongated come nee. It is usually used either as a stand-alone attention-getting sound prior to a sentence, or as a semi-rhetorical sentence-ending particle. Once used prior to a sentence, it may be paired with “ano”:
Nee? and also Ano ne? once used before a sentence can be used to start an exchange, or to get someone’s attention.
When ね ne is used at the end of a sentence, it turns a statement right into a semi-rhetorical statement. There is a myriad of different ways to translate ね ne at the end of a sentence, such as “don’t girlfriend think?” “isn’t it?” “right?”, and also so on.
Sometimes the enhancement of ね ne at the finish of a sentence suggests that the speaker desires check of something, but much more often than not ね ne at the end of a sentence is just a prompt for the listener come agree, or a prompt for the listener to create Aizuchi.*
Sono shiken wa taihen deshita ne
That test was tough, huh?.Note:
*The term Aizuchi describes the miscellaneous sounds and also short words vocalized by a listener in between a speaker’s unit volume or sentence to show that they are undoubtedly listening and/or agreeing, comparable to going “uh-huh, uh-huh” while listening to someone speak in English.
In plenty of cases, ね ne requires no an answer from the listener. Because that example, そうですね sou desu ne (literally “right, huh?”) is frequently said as soon as thinking about what to say, and requires no response. Depending upon the circumstances, lengthy sentences ending with ね ne may additionally be fully or mainly rhetorical, likewise requiring no response.
ね ne can be merged with よ yo to do a sentence the is both emphatic and also semi-rhetorical. When these two particles room combined, よ yo always come first:
Sono shiken wa taihen deshita yo ne
That test to be tough, huh!Japanese Particle: Ka か
Usage that KA Particle1. To ask a question
When student are very first learning Japanese, they will certainly primarily find out か ka as a question particle. Put か ka at the end of a explain will turn it right into a question:
Kawa-chan wa piano o hikemasu
Kawa-chan deserve to play piano.
Kawa-chan wa piano o hikemasu ka?
Can Kawa-chan beat piano?Note
In written Japanese, questions carry out not necessarily must be finished with a question note if there is a question particle at the end of the sentence.
So “Can Kawa-chan pat piano?” Could likewise be composed かわちゃんはピアノを弾けますか。 through a period instead the a inquiry mark. Sometimes questions additionally do not usage a inquiry particle, in which situation they must use a question mark (or a climbing tone of voice, if spoken): かわちゃんはピアノを弾けます？2. To indicate choices
The second function of か ka is to median “or.” か ka can it is in placed in between two noun to create “A or B” sentences:
Doyoubi ka nichiyoubi ni umi ni iku
On Saturday or Sunday I will go come the beach.3. To suggest uncertainty or indecision
A third role of か ka is that it have the right to be placed ~ phrases within bigger sentences to indicate uncertainty or indecision:
Ashita wa shigoto o yasumu ka kimeteinai
I haven’t decided if I will take off of job-related tomorrow.
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Since か ka can be supplied at the end of sentences, that is – of course – occasionally semi-rhetorical! for instance, そうかsouka, literally “is that so?”) is typically used rather similarly to the English “I see” also though the か ka in “souka” is technically a concern particle.
That’s every little thing on のno, よyo, ね ne, and also か ka for now! If you have any type of questions about these particles, or if over there are any kind of uses of this particles that we neglected to walk over in this article, please leave united state a comment below!