This chapter starts turn off by explaining the definition of resistance in an electrical circuit. Learners will certainly then look in ~ the usage of resistors. This is a revision of few of the principles covered in Gr 8 energy and change when looking in ~ the Energy transfers in ~ an electric system (Chapter 2). For simple reference to what learners extended in the ahead grade, you deserve to visit the website whereby this content is located online, and also navigate come the pertinent grade and also chapter.

You are watching: What factors affect the resistance of a conductor? select all that apply.

This year, the ide of resistance will certainly be expanded by looking in ~ the factors that influence resistance in a resistor, namely:

the kind of material of which the conductor is do the thickness the the conductor the size of the conductor the temperature of the conductor

These will certainly be investigated experimentally. Learner must be able to explain the relationships between these factors and the resistance offered by the resistor. It is not essential to display experimentally how temperature affect resistance, however the principle must still be covered. CAPS suggests investigating at least one the the various other factors. All three investigations have actually been had in this workbook so the you have actually the choice as to which one girlfriend would prefer to conduct with your class, or, if time permits, you can conduct all three investigations. 3 hours have been allocated come this ar in CAPS, so girlfriend should have time to perform more than among the investigations. In the workbook, they have been presented together three different investigations, however you can likewise perform lock concurrently, or allocate a different investigation to various groups. The teams can then report earlier to the class on their findings and you deserve to subsequently summarise the results on the board.

If you just teach organic Sciences, it is a great idea to examine with the an innovation teachers to see just how these two curriculums match each other, specifically with regard to electricity. Few of the principles which could be introduced for the first time in herbal Sciences, have already been spanned in the an innovation curriculum. Knowing what learners have currently covered and been presented to will help make her classes more efficient and an ext stimulating for learners.

3.1 What is resistance?

This is had as an introduction.

3.2 supplies of resistors (1 hour)




Activity: useful resistance

Recalling, identifying, describing


Activity: make your own rheostat

Following instructions, predicting, observing, explaining


Activity: comparing a led to a filament irradiate bulb

Describing, drawing, explaining, comparing


3.3 components that affect resistance (2 hours)




Investigation: how does the material of the resistor affect the resistance?

Hypothesising, identify variables, adhering to instructions, drawing, observing, describing, analysing, concluding

CAPS suggested

Investigation: just how does the thickness that the conductor affect the resistance?

Hypothesising, identifying variables, adhering to instructions, drawing, observing, describing, analysing, concluding

CAPS suggested

Investigation: how does the length of a conductor affect the resistance of the conductor?

Hypothesising, identify variables, following instructions, drawing, observing, describing, analysing, concluding

CAPS suggested

What is resistance? What do we use resistors for? does length impact resistance? walk temperature influence resistance? walk the type of resistor material influence resistance? go the thickness of a resistor influence the resistance?
A good way to present this subject is to act the end the following situation with her learners i m sorry is explained in the learner"s book. Friend can even just produce an imaginary field by drawing a square with chalk on the ground and also then a small corridor coming off of it. Tell learners to very first walk around randomly in the field and then when you signal (indicating the a potential difference has been applied throughout the wire), they all require to relocate towards the corridor and also get v it. You have the right to make the corridor start off large and become narrower to additional illustrate exactly how the resistance to your movement increases as the corridor i do not care narrower. This only demonstrates among the components influencing resistance (namely the width of the conductor), but can be supplied to introduce the idea that resistance.

We have actually revised the principle of electrical current and also how electrons relocate within a conducting wire before introducing the idea that resistance in an electric circuit.

Think around your institution break time. All of the learner are external on the field, sit in groups and relaxing. Some of you will certainly be moving around the field from team to team as you greet her friends. The institution bell rings, signaling the finish of break. Friend all acquire up and start moving toward the school building. You space all able to move easily due to the fact that there is a good deal of an are but what happens together you enter the corridor the the school building?


Everyone now needs to fit through a narrow corridor. Everyone is make the efforts to obtain to class and also so some learners will bump right into other learners. As you shot to go into your classroom the becomes even more daunting because the doorway is also narrower 보다 the corridor and also so only one or 2 learners deserve to pass v at a time.

The activity of the learners is very comparable to the activity of electron in an electric conductor. The ar offers a very low resistance come the movement of the learners and so the learners space able to relocate freely. The corridor has actually a higher resistance to the movement of the learners since less learners have the right to now pass with the corridor than v the field. The great doorway offers the highest possible resistance together it only enables a couple of learners through at a time.

How have the right to we use this to illustrate electrical resistance? Let"s an initial revise some concepts about electric current.

Electric charge, or charge, is the physical building of issue that reasons it to endure a pressure when close to various other electrically charged matter. There room two varieties of electric charges - positive and negative. Electrons have a an adverse charge and protons have a hopeful charge.

An electric current is the price of charge flow in a closed, electric circuit. The electron in one atom room arranged in the outer an are around the main nucleus. In metals, the electrons space able to move openly within the metal. The electrons space not connected with a details atom in the metal. Us say electrons in a steel are delocalised. Have a look at the adhering to diagram which mirrors this.

We can think of the model of a steel as the positive metal ions in solved positions surrounding by a "sea" of electrons.


Conducting cable in an electrical circuit is made of metal. If we supply it through a resource of energy and a complete circuit, climate the electrons will all move in the same general direction with the wire to the hopeful terminal that the battery. This movement of electrons every time through a conductor is the electric current.


Resistance in an electrical circuit opposes the passage of electrons. The unit the measurement for resistance is the ohm, through the symbol Ω.

The ohm gets its name from the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm, who noticed that the potential difference throughout a conductor and the electric present are straight proportional (Ohm"s Law).

An electrical conductor is a kind of material or object which allows electric charge to pass with it.

You can additionally remind learner at this allude that electrical insulators room non-conductors together they execute not allow electric charge v them.

All electric conductors have some resistance. Some conducting materials have a particular resistance and also are provided to add electrical resistance come a circuit. An electrical component which to add resistance come a circuit is dubbed a resistor.

Different varieties of resistors supplied to include resistance come an electrical circuit.

Can you watch that there are various coloured bands on the resistors? This isn"t simply to make them look pleasing to the eye. The coloured bands are actually a password that tells us the strength of the resistance that the resistor.

Resistors are electric components and also have a symbol to represent them in an electric circuit diagram. Perform you mental the symbol indigenous Gr 8? attract it in the an are below.

There space two symbols offered to stand for resistors, however the one most frequently used is the the one using a block.


on a microscope level, electrons moving through the conductor collide (or interact) with the corpuscle of which the conductor (metal) is made. When they collide, they deliver kinetic energy. This leads to resistance. The transferred energy reasons the resistor to warmth up. You deserve to feel this directly if friend touch a cellphone charger when you space charging a cell phone - the charger gets warm since its circuits have actually some resistors in them.

Resistors can be supplied to regulate the current in a circuit. Think ago to some of the job-related that girlfriend did in Gr 8. If you boost the resistance in a circuit, what wake up to the current? define your answer.

talk about this v your class as they can not have carried out these investigations in the previous grade. When the resistance in a circuit increases, the current decreases. Adding an ext resistance boosts the opposition to the circulation of charge so that is more challenging for charge to move through the circuit. Because of this there is less current (as existing is the rate of flow of charge). We say the the current is inversely proportional to the resistance, definition as the resistance increases, the existing decreases.

Another means in i beg your pardon we can use resistors is to administer useful energy transfers. Do you remember feather at energy transfers in a mechanism in Gr 8? The input energy beginning the system and then offers an output energy. Some of the output power is helpful to us, and some is wasted energy. Because that example, a resistor have the right to be provided to transfer electrical energy right into light (light bulb) or into warm (kettle element). Power is wasted as it is lost to the surroundings. Resistors are used to administer useful energy transfers.

This activity links ago to the work-related done in class 8 Energy and Change. The difference between "useful" and also "wasted" energy is emphasize again. The learners have to see that resistors have the right to be provided to carry out useful power transfers.

Why do we want to stand up to the motion of electrons? Resistors deserve to be exceptionally useful. Think around a kettle. If friend look inside you will see a big metal coil.

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Looking within a kettle.

This metal coil is the heater element. If you plug in and also switch on the kettle, the facet heats up and also heats the water. The facet is a huge resistor. As soon as the electrons relocate through the resistor, they release a lot of of energy in overcoming the resistance. This power is moved to the water in the form of heat. This transfer of energy is valuable to us as the thermal power is used to cook water in the kettle.