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Along v the vice President, the President"s room members are his most important advisors. This picture shows chairman Reagan, Vice chairman Bush, and Cabinet members in the Oval Office.

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Even the experts can"t agree top top the total number of federal government agencies, commissions, and departments.

Most estimates suggest there are probably more than 2,000 the these. Castle each have an area of expertise — some much more comprehensive than rather — yet their duties frequently overlap, do administration more difficult. To complicate things also more, numerous agencies have actually counterparts in ~ the state and local level. The size, complexity, and also overlapping responsibilities leave the federal administration open to continuous attempts come reorganize and streamline.

Congress has actually the power to create, organize, and disband all commonwealth agencies. Many of them are under the control of the President, although few of castle actually have actually direct contact with the White House. So, the administration has 2 masters — Congress and also the President. The bureaucracy generally drops into four wide types: room departments, federal government corporations, elevation agencies, and also regulatory commissions


Cabinet departments
department of State Treasury department Department that Defense room of Justice department of the interior Department of agriculture Department of business Department of job Department of transportation Department the Housing and Urban advance Department the Health and also Human solutions Department of power Department of education Department of Veterans AffairsDepartment of homeland Security

The cabinet Departments

The 15 cabinet departments room each headed by a Secretary that sits on the President"s Cabinet. The exception is the righteousness Department, i m sorry is headed by the attorney General, that is likewise a member that the President"s Cabinet. The Secretaries room responsible for directing the department"s policy and also for overseeing that is operation. Room secretaries room usually torn between their obligations as presidential advisers and also heads of your departments.


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As the very first woman cabinet member, Frances Perkins served for 12 years, helping draft law such together the Social defense Act and also the an initial federal minimum fairy laws.

Each has a special area that policy, return their responsibilities are still really broad. The company of each is rather complex, however they have actually some things in common. All Secretaries have a Deputy or Undersecretary, as well as a organize of Assistant Secretaries, that all direct significant programs in ~ the department.

Most departments are split into bureaus, divisions, and also sections. For example, the FBI lies within the domain that the righteousness Department, and also the an enig Service is right now within the Treasury Departmeny agency, however soon to be relocated under the auspices the the department of Homeland protection .

Government Corporations

Government corporations do not belonging to any kind of department — they stand on their own. Probably the best-known federal government corporations space the United states Postal Service and also Amtrak. They are various from other agencies in the they are businesses produced by Congress, and also they charge fees for your services. Like any type of other business, government corporations have actually private vain — such as commonwealth Express and United Parcel organization — and also sometimes state competition — such as the new Jersey Transit Authority.


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At the time of that creation, NASA was assumed by many to be a defense-related agency. Today, that brings nations together in highly publicized initiatives like the International room Station presented here.

Independent Agencies

Independent agencies very closely resemble cabinet departments, yet they space smaller and less complex. Generally, they have narrower areas of obligation than carry out Cabinet departments. Many of this agencies room not cost-free from presidential control and also are independent only in the feeling that they room not part of a department.

Congress create them as different agencies for plenty of reasons, practical as well as symbolic. Because that example, as soon as the national Aeronautics and space Administration (NASA) was established, numerous members of congress assumed that it would certainly be a component of the department of Defense. However, the is one independent agency because the an are program has many other functions than the defense of the nation.


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The ATF (now the office of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and also Explosives) was transferred from the room of the Treasury come the room of righteousness in 2006.

Regulatory Agencies

These organ regulate essential parts of the economy, making rules for huge industries and also businesses that impact the understanding of the public. Due to the fact that regulatory commissions room "watchdogs" the by their really nature need to operate independently, they room not component of a department, and also the chairman does no directly manage most the them. Every commission has actually from 5 come 11 members appointed through the President, however the president cannot eliminate them for the size of their terms in office.

Examples of these commissions room the Securities and also Exchange Commission, which regulates the stock market, brokers, and also investment practices. One more well-known commission is the commonwealth Reserve Board that governs the nation"s monetary policy. The eco-friendly Protection company serves as a guardian end the nation"s environment, making and enforcing standards for the industrial and also commercial sectors.

With over 2,000 various agencies, the federal bureaucracy is almost details to run into troubles with organization, overlapping responsibilities, and efficiency. Practically every current President has come right into office figured out to refashion and trim the bureaucracy. However, none has actually been able to make much more than young adjustments. Well-established agencies have actually lives of their own, and also are an overwhelming to change. Besides, the country has large, complex, needs requiring special attention. A huge bureaucracy is a part of the government"s effort to fulfill those needs.


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NASA Homepage
The nationwide Aeronautics and room Administration, according to its website, is an investment in America"s future. Explore this remarkable website, from its pages on an are flight to women in NASA. Click on "other cool sites" for an ext neat stuff 보다 you can visit in one day. Don"t miss out ~ above the flash movie of NASA"s vision or the webcasts, which deserve to be viewed on windows Media Player.

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The federal Deposit insurance Corporation (FDIC)
What wake up if your bank goes bankrupt? You obtain your money earlier — if your bank is insured through the federal Deposit insurance money Corporation. Due to the fact that 1933, the FDIC has been keeping America"s belief in its financial institutions alive. Take a look in ~ the organization and also browse its official website here.

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U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Homer Simpson makes the meltdown that a atom reactor in a strength plant seem funny, but in truth it can cause an international devastation. The nuclear Regulatory the supervisory board is responsible for making sure that power plants room safe from the moment they are built to the moment that they are shut down. Take a look in ~ what they perform at their official website.

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The Securities and Exchange Commission
The stock sector crash of 1929 crippled the U.S. Economy and also devastated the stays of numerous Americans. What go the federal government do to make sure that something like that never ever happens again? They established the Securities and Exchange Commission, which oversees investment methods of American businesses. If you have an attention in the stock market, it"s worth your time come wade through this official website.

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Federal trade Commission
You"ve viewed the board game Monopoly, but did you recognize that real monopolies space usually illegal? The Federal profession Commission provides sure that companies follow the law, use fair business practices, and don"t cheat the consumer. They likewise protect consumer by investigate complaints and also educating us around what to look the end for. The FTC"s official website makes for an exciting read because that anyone who might do organization in the U.S.
Consumer Protection
Are you obtaining your money"s worth? inspect here prior to you make a purchase to find out how you could be hoodwinked if girlfriend aren"t careful.
DefenseLink — The U.S. Department of Defense
With the Army, wait Force, marine Corps, and also the marine under the auspices, the department of Defense is the component of the government assigned to preserving national security. Its official website has actually pages on such threats to the U.S. As weapons of massive destruction and anthrax, and also online memorials come fallen soldiers, Olympic coverage, and much more.
Joint Chiefs the Staff
The head honchos the each army branch comprise the share Chiefs of Staff, that advise the president on army matters. Find out about the composition and philosophy that the company here.
The United says Department the Justice
Attorney basic Janet Reno and also her office room responsible because that finding and prosecuting federal criminals. The official Department of justice website is full of interesting information, consisting of the FBI"s many wanted list and pages on hot topics from school violence come the fatality penalty.

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U.S. State Department
Even though only 1% of the national budget plan goes to global affairs, the State room does several of the most publicized government-related work in the country. The same agency that to represent the U.S. In the United countries is responsible because that negotiating trade agreements and also issuing passports and also visas. Take a look at at some of the State Department"s recent jobs at their official website.

See more: -2 To The Fourth Power - What Is 2 To The 4Th Power

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United claims Treasury Department
Show me the money! The U.S. Treasury department monitors the government"s financial institution accounts, prints money, and investigates tax evasion, among many various other duties. Find out the answers to all your questions around one of the oldest offices in the U.S. Government at their official website.

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