molecular oxygen (O2) is an oxidizing agent, butis a vital component that the air we breathe, no a dangerous toxin.The formula because that ozone (O3) watch very similar to the ofmolecular oxygen. Let"s examine whyO3 is a lot stronger oxidizer than O2.

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TheLewis structures in figure 1 suggest that the ozone molecule has two identical resonancestructures, which method the electrons are delocalized.From the Lewis structure, we check out that the link order because that O2 is2 (a twin bond), vice versa, the bond order for O3 is 1.5 (one and also ahalf bonds). Recall the a smallerbond order way a weaker (longer)bond. Once the link order is lower,electrons are held less tightly. The reduced bond bespeak of O3 shows thatdelocalized (p) electrons will certainly be moreavailable to react with various other molecules.

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Figure 1a. Lewis structure of molecular oxygen

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Figure 1b. Lewis structure of ozone
Figure 1

Comparing the Lewis structures of molecular oxygen (Figure 1a) and also ozone (Figure 1b) suggests that ozone has delocalized electrons. These delocalized (p) electrons an ext readily reaction with other molecules 보다 localized electrons. The forecast of family member reactivities from the Lewisstructure is evidenced by the typical reduction potentials for oxygen andozone. Palliation potentials measure the tendency of a substance to acceptelectrons family member to some standard, typically H++ e- �1/2H2.Both O2 and O3 accept electrons and also hydrogen ionsto create water (see reduction half-reactions in Equations 1 and 2 below).(The palliation of O2 is the basis of the electron transportchain, which is disputed in the accuse "Energy for the Body:Oxidative Phosphorylation.")


O2 (g)+ 4H++ 4e- �2H2O (l)

eo=1.23 V at 298 K (1)

O3 (g)+ 2H++ 2e-� O2 (g) +H2O (l) eo=2.07V at 298 K (2)

The an ext positive the traditional reduction potential, themore conveniently the problem accepts electrons. (Recall the DG = -nFe. DGis a measure up of spontaneity, and negative values because that DGindicate a voluntarily reaction. Negative(spontaneous) values of DG exchange mail topositive worths for the reduction potential, e.)Hence, again we watch that O3 is a more powerful oxidizing agent 보다 O2.

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Thus, our understanding of ptcouncil.net predicts that highconcentrations that ozone could be unhealthy, due to the fact that it is a stronger oxidizerthan oxygen and also might therefore damage lung tissue. A variety of tissue culture and animal studies confirm thishypothesis. In vitro exposure to ozone reasons airway epithelium damage and also lipidoxidation. Human being bronchialepithelial cells exposed come ozone in tissue culture release molecules that causeinflammation. Due to the fact that asthma isessentially one inflammation the the airways, air air pollution that causesinflammation is suspected of triggering asthma attacks.There is clinical evidence both because that and versus ozone as a reason ofasthma, however. In vivo exposure of guinea pigs to ozone causes DNA strand breaks intracheobronchial epithelial cells. Thismay mean that high ozone concentrations will add to increased incidenceof lung cancer. The relationshipbetween ozone levels and public wellness is an active area of research, and also we aresure come learn more in the next couple of years.