recognize disaccharides as compounds consisting of two monosaccharide devices joined by a glycoside attach between the C1 of one sugar and also among the hydroxyl groups of a second sugar. identify the 2 monosaccharide units in a offered disaccharide. identify the form of glycoside link (e.g., 1,4′‑β) present in a provided disaccharide structure. attract the framework of a particular disaccharide, given the structure of the monosaccharide devices and the type of glycoside connect affiliated.

Note: If α‑ or β‑D‑glucose were among the monosaccharide units, its structure would not be provided.

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recognize the structural function that determines whether or not a given disaccharide behaves as a reducing sugar and also undergoes mutarotation, and also compose equations to illustrate these sensations. determine the assets developed from the hydrolysis of a provided disaccharide.

Key Terms

Make specific that you can define, and also usage in context, the crucial terms below.

1,4′ connect disaccharide (view Section 25.1) invert sugar

Study Notes

Notice that most of the disaccharides debated in this section contain one unit of D-glucose. You are not expected to remember the in-depth structures of maltose, lactose and sucincreased. Similarly, we carry out not mean you to remember the organized names of these substances.


Previously, you learned that monosaccharides have the right to create cyclic frameworks by the reactivity of the carbonyl group through an OH group. These cyclic molecules deserve to subsequently react through one more alcohol. Disaccharides (C12H22O11) are sugars created of two monosaccharide devices that are joined by a carbon–oxygen-carbon affiliation well-known as a glycosidic linkage. This linkage is formed from the reactivity of the anomeric carbon of one cyclic monosaccharide through the OH group of a second monosaccharide.


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The disaccharides differ from one another in their monosaccharide constituents and also in the certain type of glycosidic link connecting them. Tbelow are three common disaccharides: maltose, lactose, and also succlimbed. All three are white crystalline solids at room temperature and also are soluble in water. We’ll take into consideration each sugar in more detail.



Maltose is a reducing sugar. Thus, its two glucose molecules should be attached in such a means regarding leave one anomeric carbon that can open up to develop an aldehyde team. The glucose systems in maltose are joined in a head-to-tail fashion through an α-linkage from the initially carbon atom of one glucose molecule to the fourth carbon atom of the second glucose molecule (that is, an α-1,4-glycosidic linkage; watch Figure 1). The bond from the anomeric carbon of the initially monosaccharide unit is directed downward, which is why this is known as an α-glycosidic link. The OH group on the anomeric carbon of the second glucose have the right to be in either the α or the β position, as displayed in Figure 1.

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Many kind of adults and some youngsters experience from a deficiency of lactase. These people are shelp to be lactose intolerant because they cannot digest the lactose found in milk. An even more significant problem is the genetic illness galactosemia, which outcomes from the lack of an enzyme needed to convert galactose to glucose. Certain bacteria can metabolize lactose, developing lactic acid as among the commodities. This reaction is responsible for the “souring” of milk.


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The succlimbed molecule is distinctive among the widespread disaccharides in having actually an α-1,β-2-glycosidic (head-to-head) link. Because this glycosidic affiliation is created by the OH team on the anomeric carbon of α-D-glucose and the OH team on the anomeric carbon of β-D-fructose, it ties up the anomeric carbons of both glucose and fructose.