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Manganese ores space primarily developed by Australia, south Africa, China, Gabon, and Brazil. Huge areas of the ocean floor room covered with manganese nodules, additionally called polymetallic nodules, concretions that manganese with some iron, silicon, and also aluminum. The lot of manganese in the nodules is estimated to it is in much much more than the in floor reserves.


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Manganese nodules
Manganese nodules ~ above the southern Pacific s floor.
Courtesy that the Lamont-Doherty geology Observatory, Columbia University

Most that the manganese created is provided in the form of ferromanganese and also silicomanganese alloys because that iron and also steel manufacture. Manganese ores containing stole oxides are first reduced in blast heaters or electric furnaces with carbon to yield ferromanganese, which subsequently is used in steelmaking. Adding manganese, which has a higher affinity because that sulfur than does iron, counter the low-melting stole sulfide in stole to high-melting manganese sulfide. Developed without manganese, steel division up when hot-rolled or forged. Steels usually contain less than 1 percent manganese. Manganese stole is supplied for an extremely rugged service; containing 11–14 percent manganese, it gives a hard, wear-resistant, and also self-renewing surface ar over a hard unbreakable core. Pure manganese developed electrolytically is used largely in the preparation of nonferrous alloys that copper, aluminum, magnesium, and also nickel and also in the production of high-purity chemicals. Practically all commercial alloys of aluminum and also magnesium save manganese to improve corrosion resistance and also mechanical properties. Aluminum can be ~ contain about 1.5 percent manganese. (For detailed information on the extraction, refining, and applications that manganese, see manganese processing.)


All organic manganese is the steady isotope manganese-55. It exists in four allotropic modifications; the complex cubic structure of the so-called alpha phase is the form stable at plain temperatures. Manganese somewhat resembles steel in basic chemical activity. The metal oxidizes superficially in air and rusts in moist air. That burns in wait or oxygen in ~ elevated temperatures, as does iron; decomposes water slowly when cold and rapidly top top heating; and also dissolves easily in dilute mineral acids with hydrogen evolution and also the development of the corresponding salts in the +2 oxidation state.

Manganese is quite electropositive, dissolving very readily in dilute nonoxidizing acids. Although reasonably unreactive towards nonmetals at room temperature, it reaction with plenty of at elevated temperatures. Thus, manganese burns in chlorine to provide manganese(II) chloride (MnCl2), reacts with fluorine to give manganese(II) fluoride (MnF2) and also manganese(III) fluoride (MnF3), burns in nitrogen at about 1,200 °C (2,200 °F) to give manganese(II) nitride (Mn3N2), and burns in oxygen to give manganese(II,III) oxide (Mn3O4). Manganese additionally combines straight with boron, carbon, sulfur, silicon, or phosphorus but not through hydrogen.

Compounds

Of the wide variety of compounds developed by manganese, the many stable take place in oxidation says +2, +6, and also +7. These room exemplified, respectively, by the manganous salts (with manganese together the Mn2+ ion), the manganates (MnO42−), and also the permanganates (MnO4−). Together in the instance of titanium, vanadium, and also chromium, the greatest oxidation state (+7) the manganese corresponds to the total number of 3d and 4s electrons. That state occurs only in the oxo species permanganate (MnO4−), manganese heptoxide (Mn2O7), and manganese trioxide fluoride (MnO3F), which display some similarity to corresponding compounds that the halogens—for example, in the instability of the oxide. Manganese in oxidation state +7 is powerfully oxidizing, normally being decreased to manganese in the +2 state. The intermediate oxidation states are known, but, other than for part compounds in the +3 and +4 states, they space not an especially important.

The principal industrial compounds the manganese include several oxides. Manganese(II) oxide, or manganese monoxide (MnO), is supplied as a beginning material because that the production of manganous salts, together an additive in fertilizers, and also as a reagent in textile printing. It wake up in nature together the environment-friendly mineral manganosite. It likewise can be all set commercially by heater manganese lead carbonate in the lack of air or by pass hydrogen or carbon monoxide over manganese dioxide.

The most important manganese link is manganese dioxide, in i m sorry manganese is in the +4 oxidation state, and also the black color mineral pyrolusite is the chief source of manganese and every one of its compounds. That is likewise widely offered as a chemistry oxidant in necessary synthesis. Manganese dioxide is offered as the cathode material in dry-cell batteries. The is developed directly native the ore, although substantial amounts are additionally prepared synthetically. The fabricated oxide is all set by decomposition that manganous nitrate; through reaction of manganous sulfate, oxygen, and sodium hydroxide; or by electrolysis of an aqueous systems of manganese sulfate.


Various manganese salts also have commercial importance. Manganese sulfate (MnSO4) is added to soils to promote plant growth, especially of citrus crops. In addition, it is a great reducing agent, particularly useful in the manufacture of paint and varnish dryers. The deep-purple link potassium permanganate (KMnO4) has plenty of uses, many notably together a disinfectant, water purifier, and also antiseptic.

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This write-up was many recently revised and updated by Adam Augustyn, regulating Editor, referral Content.