C) stratum reticulumpage 153: there isn"t a stratum reticulum. The epidermis of thick skin is composed of 5 layers. Indigenous deep come superficial, this layers are stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and also stratum corneum. (Study tip: try the mnemonic BSGLC--Betty"s Skin Glows prefer Candles) Note: thin skin lacks the stratum lucidum; thus, it is composed of just the four significant layers.
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EpidermousThe superficial layer of the skin is composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Which that the adhering to statements indicates the way in which the body"s herbal defenses protect the skin native the results of UV damage? A) The skin is safeguarded by the synthetic of three pigments that add to the skin"s color. B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and also hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight. C) The skin is protected by enhancing the number of Langerhans" cells, which aid to activate the immune system. D) prolonged exposure come the sunlight induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a organic sunscreen.
D) prolonged exposure come the sun induces melanin dispersion, which subsequently acts as a organic sunscreen.
What is the first threat come life native a enormous third-degree burn?What is the an initial threat come life from a massive third-degree burn?A) catastrophic liquid lossB) infectionC) unbearable painD) ns of immune function
A) catastrophic liquid losspage 165: The immediate threat come life resulting from significant burns isa catastrophic lose of human body fluids containing proteins and electrolytes.This leads to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, and also then renal fail (kidney shutdown) and circulatory shock(inadequate blood circulation early to decreased blood volume). To save the patient, the shed fluids should be replaced automatically via the intravenous (IV) route.
In the skin epidermis, the 4 top layers space of what type?A) dendritic cellB) karatinocyteC) fibroblastD) erythrocyte
Despite its obvious durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How can a person know that the dermis has actually been stretched and/or torn?
The figure of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.ex: stretch marks during pregnancy
diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood ship in the dermispage 152: prefer all epithelia, the epidermis counts on capillaries in theunderlying connective organization (the dermis in this case) for its nutrients.
The dermis is a strong, versatile connective tissue layer. Which of the adhering to cell types are likely to be discovered in the dermis?
fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cellspage 154: Its cells are common of thosefound in any type of connective organization proper: fibroblasts, macrophages,and sometimes mast cells and white blood cells.
In enhancement to protection (physical and also chemical barrier), the skin serves various other functions. I beg your pardon of the complying with is another crucial function of the skin?
It switch modified epidermal cholesterol come a vitamin D precursor vital to calcium metabolism.Page 163: once sunlight bombards the skin, modification cholesterol moleculesare convert to a vitamin D precursor, i m sorry is transported via the blood to various other body locations to it is in ultimatelyconverted come vitamin D, which plays assorted roles in calcium metabolism.
An epidermal dendritic cabinet is a committed ________.A) melanocyteB) nerve cellC) phagocytic cellD) squamous epithelial cell
Which form of skin cancer shows up as a scaly reddened papule and tends to thrive rapidly and also metastasize?A) Squamous cell carcinomaB) MelanomaC) AdenomaD) Basal cabinet carcinoma
A) Squamous cabinet carcinomaPage 164: Squamous cabinet carcinoma, the 2nd most usual skin cancer,arises indigenous the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum. The lesion shows up as a scaly reddened papule (small, rounded elevation) the arises most frequently on the head (scalp, ears, and lower lip), and hands.
If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal great of the sole of the foot, which cells would certainly be damaged?If a splinter penetrated the skin into the second epidermal layer of the single of the foot, which cells would be damaged?A) lucidumB) spinosumC) basaleD) granulosum
A) lucidumPage 153: Stratum Lucidum (Clear Layer) with the irradiate microscope, the stratum lucidum (loo9sid-um; "light"), visible onlyin thick skin, is a thin translucent tape just above the stratum granulosum, BSGLC--Betty"s Skin Glows prefer Candles.
Which declare correctly explains why hair shows up the way it does?A) Kinky hair has actually flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair.C) Air balloon in the hair shaft reason straight hair.D) Gray hair is the an outcome of hormonal action altering the chemistry composition the melanin.
A) Kinky hair has actually flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.Page 157: If the tower is flat and also ribbonlike in overcome section, the hair is kinky; if it is oval, the hair is silky and also wavy; if it is perfectly round, the hair is straight and tends to it is in coarse.
Although the integument is a covering, the is by no method simple, and some of its functions encompass ________.A) the dermis offering the major mechanical obstacle to chemicals, water, and other exterior substancesB) resident macrophage-like cells whose role is come ingest antigenic invaders and also present them come the immune systemC) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditionsD) epidermal blood ship serving together a blood reservoir
B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is come ingest antigenic invaders and present them come the immune system
Sweat is secreted through ________.A) sudoriferous glandsB) mammary glandsC) ceruminous glandsD) sebaceous glands
A) sudoriferous glandsPage 160: Sudoriferous glands, which incorporate eccrine and apocrine sweat glands, develop sweat.
Which skin-color-associated, pigment-producing cell is situated in the labeling layer D?A) Merkel cellB) fibroblastC) keratinocyteD) melanocyte
D) melanocyte Melanocytes in ~ the stratum basale develop the colours melanin, i beg your pardon is deposited within the deeper great of the epidermis.
C) ceruminous glandsPage 161: Ceruminous glands are modified apocrine sweat glands uncovered in the lining that the exterior ear canal. Their secretion mixes v sebum created by surrounding sebaceous glands to type a sticky, bitterness substance referred to as cerumen, or earwax, i m sorry is thought to deter insects and also block entrance of international material.
The dermis has actually two significant layers; i beg your pardon of the following constitutes 80% that the dermis and also is responsible for the stress lines in the skin?A) the subcutaneous layerB) the reticular layerC) the hypodermal layerD) the papillary layer
Page 151: The dermis has two layers, the papillary and also reticular, i beg your pardon abut one one more along one indistinct boundary
Keratinocytes are crucial epidermal cell due to the fact that they ________.A) room able to change from living cells to plasma membranes and also still functionB) develop a fibrous protein that provides the skin much of its security propertiesC) room able come reproduce sporadically together neededD) room a an effective defense against damaging UV rays
B) produce a fibrous protein that provides the skin much of its security propertiesPage 152: The chief duty of keratinocytes is to develop keratin, the fibrous proteinthat helps offer the epidermis its security properties
Which the the following terms defines the hypodermis layer?A) papillarB) epidermalC) reticularD) subcutaneous
D) subcutaneous page 151: The hypodermis ("under the skin") layer is likewise referred to as the subcutaneous region.
Male sample baldness has actually a hereditary switch that turns on in solution to ________.A) sizeB) masculine hormonesC) ageD) weight
B) masculine hormonesPage 159: True, or frank, baldness is a various story entirely. The mostcommon type, male pattern baldness, is a genetically determined, sex-influenced condition. It is assumed to be brought about by a delayed-action gene the "switches on" in adulthood and changes the response of the hair follicles to DHT dihydrotestosterone), a metabolite the testosterone.
Sudoriferous glands differ in distribution over the surface of the body. I m sorry of the adhering to is correct?A) Eccrine are the many numerous, being discovered primarily in the axillary regions.B) Apocrine glands are bigger than eccrine, and also empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin.C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, i beg your pardon is assumed to deter insects.D) Mammary glands space not thought about a modified sweat gland.
C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, i beg your pardon is assumed to deter insects.Page 161: Ceruminous glands space modifiedapocrine glands found in the lining of the exterior ear canal. Their secretion mixes with sebum produced by surrounding sebaceous glands to form a sticky, bitterness substance referred to as cerumen, or earwax, that is believed to deter insects and also block entry of foreign material.
________ is one inherited problem that affect the heme pathway; it leaves the skin scarred and gums degenerated, and also may have led to the folklore about vampires.A) PorphyriaB) Decubitus ulcerC) ImpetigoD) Rosacea
A) PorphyriaPage 171: one inherited condition in whichcertain enzymes required to form the heme the hemoglobin the blood are lacking.
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Which the the complying with would most likely be found in the stratum spinosum?A) melanocyteB) Merkel cellC) dendritic cellD) cornified cell
C) dendritic cellPage 153: Dentritic (Langerhan"s) cells space phagocytic cells that migrate into the epidermis and also are most abundant in ~ the stratum spinosum (layer C in the figure)
Which class of the dermis is directly listed below the epidermis?A) hypodermisB) reticular layerC) papillary layerD) stratum basale
C) papillary layerPage 151: The papillary great of the dermis, i m sorry is the superficial layer of the dermis, lies just beneath the epidermis. It is a slim layer of areolar connective organization in which good interlacing collagen and elastic fibers type a loose woven mat.
Hole"s Essentials of human being Anatomy & Physiology12th EditionDavid N. Shier, Jackie L. Butler, Ricki Lewis