XeF2 is a covalent inorganic halide formed by the inert gas xenon and also the halogen fluorine. This is an active solvent and also is discovered to be soluble in various fluorides choose HF and also bromine pentafluoride.

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If we look at the process of synthesis of xenon difluoride, this is the equation:

Xe + F2 ——Heat——> XeF2 

XeF2 acts together an oxidizing and fluorinating agent and also is provided to oxidize various hydrocarbons including both aromatic and acyclic compounds.

Not just this, yet this fluoride link can likewise be offered to etch silicon to kind silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) without any kind of external energy application.

If you room thinking around what XeF2 watch like, it shows up as a colorless-to-white crystalline solid with a thickness of about 4.32 g/cc.

This halide can cause some serious risks like skin burns and major eye damage. Not only this, if inhaled or swallowed, it transforms out to be fatal.

Chemical Bonding

When 2 or more atoms come with each other they react and combine to form homogeneous and heterogeneous molecules. This development of molecules wake up via the development of certain bonds which host the atoms together according to your strength.

This is known as chemical bonding i m sorry is the backbone to define the inner structure and nature that a provided molecular compound consisting of the nature it exhibits( both physical and chemical).

Before us jump directly into the chemistry bonding that XeF2 in this article, we would favor you to learn and recapitulate certain important terminologies and also concepts.

Valence Electrons

The very an initial thing to learn when we are into chemical bonding is the principle of valence electrons. Valence electrons signify the outermost shell electrons of an atom that recognize its valency.

If girlfriend go with the routine table, the teams will help us discover out the valence electron variety of a particular atomic element.

For example, Carbon is in team 4 (also referred to as Group XIV), therefore the valence shell consists of four electrons.

XeF2 Lewis Structure

Lewis Structure, additionally known as electron period structure, is an important model of chemical bonding wherein we usage the valence electron ide to schematically sketch a two-dimensional figure of a provided molecule.

We use dots to represent external shell electrons and lines to stand for the bond type.

Xenon is one inert gas element. Therefore, it has actually eight valence electrons. Fluorine is a halogen belong to team VII, thus it has actually a valency the seven.

Total variety of valence electrons =8 + 7*2 = 22

If you go by the routine table, we know that xenon is less electronegative 보다 fluorine, therefore it will take increase the place of a central atom.

Now the we have the central atom and the complete valence electron number, us will uncover out just how the electron are situated to with the octet configuration( i.e. Eight electrons exterior each atom in its outer shell)


Now, together we deserve to see we have accomplished the octet fulfillment for the 3 atoms inside XeF2 and solitary bond formation has been done.

But if you counting the total valence electron in the diagram, we can see the dots add up to 20 and also not 22.

Now, the obvious an option is to kind a dual bond with the staying two valence electrons instead of solitary bonds.

Fluorine is therefore electronegative it doesn’t commonly form twin bonds. So, we keep the valence electrons about xenon and calculate the officially charge.

Formal Charge

If we get to assume the every electron is shared equally amongst atoms, we deserve to assign a formal fee to an atom.

This is a important topic for chemical bonding, particularly for Lewis structure determination where we require to examine the least feasible formal dues of every combining atom to obtain the perfect diagrammatic representation.


For Xe, official charge= 8 (valence electron number) – 0.5*4 (number of external inspection electrons) – 6 (no the lone pair electrons) = 0

For every fluorine atom, officially charge= 7 – 0.5*2 – 6 = 0

Therefore, since both the elements are in your least feasible formal fee values, we have gained our most perfect Lewis Structure.

Note: This is an exemption to the octet rule due to the fact that xenon has an ext than eight electron in this link in that valence shell cloud.

Molecular Geometry

If you desire to dive deeper into exactly how the inside of a molecule look at like, we have to learn around molecular geometry.

This is a jump from 2D to 3D structure depiction where we have the right to visually photo how a molecule actually continues to be in bonding nature in reality.

Here, to help us identify the exactly molecular shape and also the link lengths and angles, we use a theory dubbed Valence covering Electron Pair Repulsion model (VSEPR).

This theory faces the choose charge repulsion arising between an unfavorable electron clouds bordering atomic nuclei and operates to minimize them to acquire a close to stable compound.

Xenon, being a noble gas and also belonging to team 8 ( team XVIII), does not tend to form bonds together such. Here, in XeF2, that acts together the main atom and also forms two solitary bonds with the 2 fluorine atoms.

Now, us have discussed earlier that molecular geometry can be suspect via VSEPR theory. Let us look at this diagram:


Well, below we can discover the various shapes of molecules according to your steric number and lone pair number.We can see via Lewis framework that Xenon in XeF2 has three lone pairs.

Now for steric number, we need to include the variety of bonded atom to central Xe and the lone pair the electrons.

Therefore, Steric variety of Xe in xenon difluoride = 3+2 = 5.

If we look in ~ the picture, we can uncover out the the form will it is in linear and also the shortcut angle because of this 180 degrees.

If we talk about in detail, we have the right to say that to minimize electron repulsion, together a structure is formed. The solitary bonds do the structure direct at first.

This is followed by each lone pair the pushes the lateral atoms away from Xe to a certain degree. Finally, the combined influence of all the three lone pairs provides the resultant structure linear.



Atoms have a probability function called atomic Orbitals (AO) which gives us one idea around the place of ingredient electrons. We have s,p.d,f atomic orbitals.

Do you understand that AOs perform not kind bonds within a molecule?

They fuse to type what is well-known as hybrid orbitals ( instance sp, sp3) which take component in bond development in chemistry.

This process is known as hybridization.

If we should learn about the hybridization the xenon difluoride, we need to look in ~ the respective electronic configurations.

Xe: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6Or, Xe: 4d10 5s2 5p6

F: 1s2 2s2 2p5Or, F: 2s2 2p5

So, we can look at all the atom orbitals that the atom of the XeF2 molecule.

Now, we have to uncover out i beg your pardon AO linked with the various other AO to kind hybridized orbitals.

Now, here xenon has much more than eight electrons in that valence shell( unpaired) as per Lewis Structure. So, this makes the atom excited and the construction now has 5s2 5p5 5d1.


So, the hybridization here is sp3d. Two hybrid orbitals are supplied for sigma bond formation( solitary bond) in XeF2 (F-Xe-F).

Molecular orbital Diagram

If us go a tiny further right into chemical bonding and also hybridization, we gain to know about the Molecular orbital Theory, a ide of quantum mechanics.

This provides us one idea about the MO diagram whereby we execute not take into consideration linear bonds together such. Instead, we work with the spatial and also energetic properties of electron who happen to move around under nuclei’s influence.

Here, we involve the ideas of bonding and also antibonding orbitals, sigma and pi bonds and HOMO (Highest occupied MO) and LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied MO).

XeF2 is a polyatomic molecule. Therefore, we have countless atomic orbitals to transaction which outcomes in a large number the MOs.

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In XeF2 we have actually ten electrons roughly Xe which result in feasible resonance and delocalized bonding.

However, as soon as we are looking in ~ molecular orbit theory, we deserve to see the Xenon Difluoride has 8 fill MOs:2