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Chemistry 1 Lecture: Module 1 Notes
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Terms in this set (53)
Define Chemistry
The science that deals with the composition and properties of substances and the reactions of which one substance is converted to another.
Define hypothesis
A possible explanation for an observation.
Define theory
A set of tested hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some natural phenomenon.
Define law
A statement of generally observed behavior to which there are no exceptions.
When a chemical reaction takes place, mass is neither created nor destroyed.
Law
Automobile emissions are the primary cause of the global warming trend that has been observed over the last several decades.
hypothesis
All matter is composed small units called atoms.
Theory
Listening to classical music while studying causes students to earn higher scores on chemistry exams.
Hypothesis
Define matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Define mass
A measure of the resistance of an object to change in its state of motion.
Solid shape/volume
Rigid; has fixed volume and shape.
Solid ability to flow
Does not flow
Solid compressibility
Not readily compressible
Liquid shape/volume
Definite volume; assumes the shape of container.
Liquid ability to flow
Flows easily
Liquid compressibility
Not readily compressible
Gas shape/volume
No fixed volume or shape; assumes the shape and volume of the container.
Gas ability to flow
Flows easily
Gas compressibility
Readily compressible
Define element
A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means.
Define compound
A substance with constant composition that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.
Explain the difference between a mixture and a pure substance
Pure substances have constant composition while mixtures have variable composition. Mixtures can be separated into pure substances by physical means.
Define homogeneous mixture
Mixture which is uniform throughout and visibly indistinguishable
Define heterogeneous mixture
Mixture which isn't uniform throughout and has visibly distinguishable parts.
List the elements which appear as diatomic species under normal conditions.
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2
Hint: They make the number 7 on periodic table
List the elements which are gaseous under normal conditions.
H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn
Hint: they are red on periodic table
List the elements which are liquid under normal conditions.
Hg and Br2
Hint: they are blues on the periodic table.
List the two parts of a measurement
Number and units
Kilo
1000 or 10^3
Pico
10^-12
Milli
1/1000 or 10^-3
Mega
1,000,000 or 10^6
Centi
1/100 or 10^-2
Nano
10^-9 or 1/10^9
1 inch=_____________cm
2.54 cm
1 cm^3=____________mL
1 mL
1 lb=__________g
454 g
density of water=____________g/mL
1.0 g/mL
1 mile=__________ft
5280 ft
State the rules for rounding off numbers.
If the portion to be dropped is greater than or equal to five, round up. If it is less than five, leave it alone.
Define significant digits
Number of certain digits plus first uncertain digit.
Rule 1: Zeros to the left of nonzero digits
Never significant
Ex: 0.000568
Rule 2: Zeros between nonzero digits
Always significant
Ex: 1005
Rule 3: Zeros to the right of nonzero digits
Significant if not used to show where decimal (i.e., significantly only if number contains a decimal point)
Ex: 1000 (1 sig fig)
Ex: 1.00 (3 sig fig)
State the rule used to determine the uncertainty in answers obtained by multiplying or dividing measurements.
The number of significant digits in the result is the same as the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation.
State the rule used to determine the uncertainty in answers obtained by adding or subtracting measurements.
The result has the same number of digits past the decimal point as the least precise measurement used in the calculation.
Unit factors based on definitions have an ________________number of significant figures
Infinite
Ex: 1 ft has exactly 12 in, therefore, the defined unit factors 1 ft/12 in have an infinite number of sig figs
Unit factors which are measured have only a ____________number of sig figs.
Limited
Ex: 454 g = 1 lb
454 g/ 1 lb has only three significant figures.
Define density
Mass of substance per unit volume of the substance.
What is the algorithm for converting C to F or vice versa.
1.) Add 40 degrees to the given value.
2.) Multiply by 5/9 or 9/5 as to cancel units
3.) Subtract 40 degrees to obtain the answer.
Linear relationships
One variable increases as the other variable increases and the two related by an equation of the type y=mx+b where m is constant, the slope of a straight line, and b is constant.
Directly proportional relationships
One variable increases as the other variable increases and the two variable are related by the equation y=kx where k is constant.
Note: the y intercept equals zero
Inversely proportional relationships
One variable increases as the other variable decreases and the two variables are related by the equation y=k/x or y*x=k where k is constant.
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