The Crimean War damaged out on 5th October 1853, a military problem fought between the Russian realm on one side, versus an alliance the Britain, France, the footrest Empire and Sardinia. The complexity of the war supposed that the was dealt with on the grounds of miscellaneous reasons by various parties, as everyone had a vested attention in the region.

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The outbreak of violence developed from assorted factors, consisting of the concern of Christian minority legal rights in the divine Land, the overall declining Ottoman empire leading come the “eastern question” and also a resistance from the British and French to Russian expansion. V so many factors at play, the Crimean War confirmed inevitable.

In the years leading approximately Crimea, competition in between nations to be rife, the prize being manage of the center East, i m sorry was enough to ignite nationwide rivalry in between France, Russia and Britain. France had currently taken the chance in 1830 to accounting Algeria and the possibility of additional gains to be enticing. The French Emperor Napoleon III had good plans to restore the splendour of France top top the people stage, whilst Britain was keen come secure her trade courses to India and also beyond.


The “eastern question” together it was well-known was essentially a diplomatic issue centred top top the decreasing Ottoman empire with other nations vying for control over previous Ottoman territories. These issues developed periodically as stress and anxiety in the Turkish domains caused problems among European powers seeking to take benefit of the footrest disintegration.

With the failing Ottoman empire at the head of international issue in the nineteenth century, it to be Russia who showed up to have actually the most to obtain by broadening her territory south. Through the 1850’s Britain and also France had aligned their interests v the Ottoman realm in order to hinder Russian expansion. Common interest united an i can not qualify alliance of countries to fight the possibility of Russia benefiting from the Ottomans.

Since the early 1800’s, the Ottoman empire had been experiencing difficulties to its an extremely existence. V the Serbian revolution of 1804, there was liberation for the very first Balkan Christian ottoman nation. In the years that followed, the Greek war of independence put additional strain top top the Ottomans in state of military strength and also political cohesion. The Ottomans to be fighting wars on numerous fronts and began to cede regulate of its areas such as Greece when it ended up being independent in 1830.

Only a year previously the Ottomans had agreed to the contract of Adrianopole, which provided the Russians and also Western europe commercial ships access through the black Sea straits. Whilst Britain and also its western allies had actually bolstered the Ottoman empire on different occasions, the an outcome for the declining empire was a absence of regulate in foreign policy. Both Britain and also France had actually vested interests in keeping the Ottomans as finest they could, in order to stop Russian access to the Mediterranean. Brothers in specific had comes to that Russia can have the power to development towards India, a difficult prospect because that the UK who was keen to avoid seeing off a an effective Russian navy. Fear an ext than anything else proved enough to ignite the war.

Tsar Nicholas I

The Russians meanwhile were led by Nicholas i who described the weakening Ottoman empire as the “sick guy of Europe”. The Tsar had good ambitions to take advantage of this weak point out and set his sights ~ above the eastern Mediterranean. Russia had actually exercised great power together a member of the holy Alliance i beg your pardon had essentially operated together the europe police. In the contract of Vienna the 1815 this had been agreed and also Russia to be assisting the Austrians in the suppression the the Hungarian uprising. Indigenous the approach of the Russians, they expected aid in settling the problems evoked through the fragmentation of the ottoman Empire, yet Britain and also France had other ideas.

Whilst there were a number of longer term reasons for the escalation the tension, mostly predicated on the collapse of the footrest Empire, the worry of religion was a more immediate source of conflict in need of resolution. The dispute over manage of access to religious sites in the holy Land between Catholic France and Orthodox Russia to be a consistent source of disagreement in between the two for plenty of years before 1853. The cultivation tension over this problem climaxed once rioting occurred in Bethlehem, climate a an ar of the footrest Empire. Throughout the fighting a variety of Orthodox monks were eliminated whilst engaging in dispute with French monks. The Tsar blamed these deaths ~ above the Turks that had control of this regions.

The divine Land posed plenty of problems, together it was the domain the the Muslim Ottoman realm but also of an excellent importance come Judaism and also Christianity. In the Middle periods religion had fuelled the campaigns in a bid to manage this land, whilst the Christian church had broke up into the smaller sized denominations with the eastern Orthodox Church and the roman Catholic Church representing two of the biggest groups. Unfortunately, the two showed unable to resolve differences as both declared control that the holy sites; religion as a source of dispute reared the head as soon as more.

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The Ottomans were not happy to have the conflict between France and also Russia ensuing in their territory, for this reason the Sultan collection up a board of directors to inspection the claims. France make the ide that the Catholic and also Orthodox church should have actually joint manage over the divine sites, however this caused a stalemate. By 1850, the Turks had actually sent the French two keys to the Church the the Nativity, meanwhile a decree had been sent to the Orthodox Church giving assurances that the keys would not fit the door lock!

The Door the Humility, the main entrance to the Church that the Nativity

The succeeding row over the key to the door escalated and also by 1852 the French had actually seized control of various holy sites. This was viewed by the Tsar together a direct challenge to both Russia and also the Orthodox Church. Because that Nicholas it to be simple; that saw security of Orthodox Christians together a priority, as many he believed were treated as second-class citizens under ottoman control.

Meanwhile the church themselves were attempting to settle their differences and come to some kind of agreement, regrettably neither Nicholas ns nor Napoleon III were going to back down. The civil liberties of Christian decimal in the holy Land as such became a major catalyst because that the imminent Crimean War. The French went about promoting the rights of the roman Catholics whilst the Russians sustained the east Orthodox Church.

Tsar Nicholas ns issued an ultimatum securing the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman empire under his control and also protection. The was also keen to show to the British and French, by way of conversations with the brother Ambassador George Seymour in January 1854, the the Russian desire for expansion was no much longer a priority and also that he just wanted to safeguard his Christian communities in footrest territories. The Tsar subsequently sent out his diplomat, Prince Menshikov top top a special mission to need that a Russian protectorate be created for all of the Orthodox christians in the realm which amounted to about twelve million people.