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Date:May 10, 1857 - July 8, 1859 ...(Show more)Location:AgraDelhiIndiaKanpurLucknow...(Show more)Participants:Mughal dynastyUnited Kingdom...(Show more)Context:British EmpireWestern colonialismEast India CompanyBritish raj...(Show more)Major Events:Siege the LucknowSiege that Delhi...(Show more)

Indian Mutiny, additionally called Sepoy Mutiny or First war of Independence, widespread however unsuccessful rebellion against British ascendancy in India in 1857–59. Begun in Meerut by Indian troops (sepoys) in the service of the British eastern India Company, it infect Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, and Lucknow. In India the is often dubbed the first War of Independence and also other comparable names.

Background

To regard the rebellion just as a sepoy mutiny is come underestimate the root causes leading to it. British paramountcy—i.e., the belief in British prominence in Indian political, economic, and social life—had been presented in India about 1820. The British increasingly used a variety of methods to usurp control of the Hindu princely states that were under what were dubbed subsidiary alliances with the British. Anywhere the old Indian aristocracy to be being replaced by brothers officials. One remarkable British an approach was dubbed the theory of lapse, first perpetrated by mr Dalhousie in the so late 1840s. It affiliated the brother prohibiting a Hindu ruler without a herbal heir indigenous adopting a follower and, after ~ the ruler died or abdicated, annexing his land. To those problems may be added the growing discontent of the Brahmans, plenty of of whom had been dispossessed of their profits or had actually lost lucrative positions.


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Another serious issue was the increasing pace of Westernization, by which Hindu culture was being influenced by the advent of western ideas. Missionaries were daunting the spiritual beliefs the the Hindus. The humanitarian movement led to reforms the went deeper 보다 the political superstructure. During his tenure as governor-general of India (1848–56), lord Dalhousie made efforts toward emancipating women and also had presented a invoice to remove all legitimate obstacles come the remarriage of Hindu widows. Converts to Christianity were to share v their Hindu loved ones in the residential property of the household estate. There was a widespread belief that the brother aimed in ~ breaking down the caste system. The advent of Western techniques of education and learning was a direct difficulty to orthodoxy, both Hindu and Muslim.

The mutiny damaged out in the Bengal military because it was only in the military sphere the Indians to be organized. The pretext for rebellion was the introduction of the new Enfield rifle. To pack it, the sepoys had to bite turn off the ends of lubricated cartridges. A rumour spread among the sepoys that the grease supplied to lubricate the cartridges to be a mixture that pigs’ and cows’ lard; thus, to have actually oral call with it to be an insult to both Muslims and also Hindus. Over there is no conclusive evidence that either of these products was actually supplied on any kind of of the cartridges in question. However, the perception that the cartridges to be tainted included to the bigger suspicion that the British were trying to weaken Indian timeless society. For their part, the brothers did not pay enough attention come the growing level that sepoy discontent.


The rebellion

In so late March 1857 a sepoy called Mangal Pandey struck British police officers at the military garrison in Barrackpore. He to be arrested and also then enforcement by the british in at an early stage April. Later on in April sepoy troopers in ~ Meerut refused the Enfield cartridges, and, as punishment, they were provided long jail terms, fettered, and also put in jail. This penalty incensed your comrades, who rose on may 10, shot their British officers, and also marched to Delhi, wherein there were no european troops. There the regional sepoy garrison join the Meerut men, and by nightfall the age pensionary Mughal emperor Bahādur shaman II had been nominally revitalized to power by a tumultuous soldiery. The seizure that Delhi noted a focus and collection the pattern for the entirety mutiny, i m sorry then spread out throughout northern India. Through the exception of the Mughal emperor and his sons and Nana Sahib, the adopted son that the deposed Maratha peshwa, none of the vital Indian princes joined the mutineers.


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Mangal Pandey
Image that Mangal Pandey top top a postage rubber stamp issued by the government of India in 1984.
Courtesy of photograph Division, set of info & Broadcasting, government of India

From the time of the mutineers’ seizure the Delhi, the british operations come suppress the mutiny were separated into 3 parts. First came the desperate struggles at Delhi, Kanpur, and also Lucknow during the summer; climate the operations approximately Lucknow in the winter that 1857–58, directed by sir Colin Campbell; and also finally the “mopping up” campaigns of sir Hugh rose in at an early stage 1858. Tranquility was officially asserted on July 8, 1859.

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A grim feature of the mutiny was the ferocity the accompanied it. The mutineers generally shot your British officers on rising and were responsible because that massacres in ~ Delhi, Kanpur, and elsewhere. The murder of women and children tease the British, yet in reality some brothers officers began to take significant measures prior to they knew that any such murders had occurred. In the finish the reprisals much outweighed the initial excesses. Thousands of sepoys to be bayoneted or fired indigenous cannons in a frenzy of british vengeance (though some British police officers did protest the bloodshed).