The eco-friendly Protection firm was developed in the footsteps the the Clean Air action of 1970. Because that 46 year the EPA has actually been constantly evolving and enacting laws to deal with the eco-friendly needs of this country. For many years owner of three-quarter and one-ton irradiate duty pickup trucks took pleasure in no added smog devices on your vehicles. Every one of that adjusted in 2008 through the EPA compelled the usage of diesel particulate filters on every three-quarter-ton and larger trucks and also required biannual smog tests which consisted of a intuitive inspection the the vehicle to make sure the DPF parts were quiet on the truck. In 2010 the regulation got even tighter.Many assumed that the era of huge power and also torque were over and also vowed to never purchase a new truck ever again. However, something spectacular happened and also the complete opposite point occurred. It turns out the Americans truly carry out adapt and also overcome. Every among the manufacturers figured out a method to reduced down top top the NOx levels all the if making an ext horsepower and also torque than ever before before. Development is bread the end of strife.The engineering breakthrough came through the use of the selective catalytic reduction. The vast bulk of these systems use diesel exhaust liquid (mixture that urea and also deionized water) sprayed into the exhaust system to failure the created NOx into harmless nitrogen and water molecules. Due to the fact that the DEF (Diesel Exhaust Fluid) is introduced in the exhaust, likewise called after-treatment technology, the manufacturer is totally free to build as lot power as they want. The DEF is save on computer in a different tank i m sorry is insulated and heated and is marked by a blue filler cap.Still there are two factions of diesel men out there; those who have accepted to the EPA changes and those who are still vehemently versus any regulation whatsoever despite the job-related around technological advancements. For those no willing to accept the transforms there has actually been a change to older used diesel engines or remanufactured diesel engines that have been grandfathered in. This article intends to go over the cold tough facts around DEF and also educate the populace right into making smarter diesel operator decisions.

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1. What precisely is Diesel Exhaust liquid (DEF)?

From a strictly chemical disposition DEF is a mixture of 67.5% deionized water and 32.5% urea. Urea is a link in Nitrogen that transforms to ammonia once heated and also is supplied in a range of industries. Urea is technically derived from a byproduct the urine but for mass production purposes it is synthetically made. Most DEF commodities are regulated by the American Petroleum Institute. Allows take a look in ~ the science behind DEF when combined with exhaust. Chemically, DEF is firstly made up of (NH2)2CO; and when injected right into the warm exhaust gas the water evaporates leave ammonia and isocyanic acid.STEP 1: DEF i do not care Ammonia and also Isocyanic Acid: (NH2)2CO → NH3 + HNCOSTEP 2: The Isocyanic mountain chemically breaks down with water into Carbon Dioxide and Ammonia:HNCO + H2O → CO2 + NH3 overall which is this: (NH2)2CO + H2O → 2NH3 + CO2STEP 3: at this allude during the chemical reaction Ammonia will, in the existence of oxygen and a catalyst, will reduce nitrogen oxides:2NO + 2NH3 + ½O2 -> 2N2 + 3H2O and 3NO2 + 4NH3 -> 7/2N2 + 6H2OSTEP 4: The as whole reduction of NOx by urea is:2(NH2)2CO + 4NO + O2 → 4N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2 and 2(NH2) 2CO + 3NO2 -> 7/2N2 + 4H2O + 2CO2

2. How often Do You must Fill increase the DEF Tank?

That concern specifically relies on miles every gallon and also usage the the diesel van in question. No matter how hefty the load, follow to the OE manufacturer, the typical average light duty truck will consume 2-3 gallons that DEF every 800 miles. However, most brand-new trucks v an mean miles per gallon rating of 20+mpg will certainly go around 8,000-10,000 mile on a tank full (10 gallons) of DPF. Each truck is different, for example on a Dodge ram there is a gauge readout of exactly how much DEF is left in the tank, GM has actually a digital readout and Ford has a basic low DEF light.Medium Duty and also Heavy Duty Fuel models will vary but according come Cummins Filtration DEF usage will be about 2% the the fuel consumed. For every 50 gallons of diesel fuel melted you will use 1 gallon the DEF. Here are some Medium and Heavy Duty intake projections by our friends over at Cummins Filtration:

3. Where have the right to you to buy DEF?

Don’t it is in fooled into thinking you have the right to buy DEF just anywhere. DEF is mostly sold in ~ truck stops in huge jugs containing lot of gallons the the stuff. Some gas station will carry DEF but don’t counting on the if you room in a pickle. It is essential to understand if you nothing refill an empty DEF tank the engine will automatically shut down. Friend don’t want to it is in stranded somewhere v an empty DEF tank because it is not offered everywhere. Typical places come buy DEF encompass TravelCenters that America, Walmart, Target, Love’s travel Shop, SAPP Brothers, paris J truck Stops, Petro preventing Centers and also Pilot take trip Centers, O’Reilly’s, NAPA and advanced Auto. We have also compiled a perform of the most renowned manufactures the DEF here.

4. What room the Pros and Cons of a DEF Truck?

There room very few cons v DEF together it is a relatively simple procedure to deal with. However when it pertains to Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and also Selective Catalytic reduction (SCR) there deserve to be plenty of maintenance and repair issues because they prone to clogging. These equipment are complicated in design and also a straightforward clogged filter can cause pressure and also temperature differentials that can impact the totality performance that the engine.The only cons to DEF incorporate the added upfront price to the truck, added nominal weight and also some additional room to save an extra gallon of the fluid. The pros are much better fuel economy, boosted horsepower, an ext optimized combustion, under regenerations issues, less wear ~ above the engine and in addition it only releases nitrogen and water vapor into the air.

5. Is emissions manufacturing really an important issue?

Whether it is a big deal or no is no really no up for debate considering all 2008 light-medium diesel and also up need to comply through the EPA Regulations. NOx has actually been blamed because that smog, a rise in greenhouse gasses and acid rain. The DEF as part of the Selective Catalytic Reduction system (SCR) turns NOx into pure nitrogen and water vapor. Climate adjust is a boil debate but we have the right to all agree the spewing more gasses of any kind into the setting isn’t something us need more of.

6. Will DEF lower My Fuel Mileage?

It is only herbal to think that any EPA induced changes to the diesel engine is have to a negative one but it is fairly the contrary. The major diesel manufacturers uncovered it can fine track the engine anyway the deems right then permit the SRC and DEF to eliminate the particulate. The engines are built with power in mind first and climate the SRC, DPF and also DEF remove what is needed as an afterthought. Manufacturers have discovered that engines containing SCR an innovation oftentimes get much better fuel mileage compared with other smog reduction internal systems. Fuel mixed in v the SCR finds an added resource of aspects to burn. Fuel mileage have the right to be improved by as lot as 5%-7%

7. Has this new DEF modern technology Ever Been offered Before?

DEF an innovation has been supplied for years in the nation in agriculture, commercial and huge scale power generation applications. The ide is the same across the board: the urea combined with warm creates ammonia that causes a chemistry reaction that reduces NOx by 70%-95%. In truth 90% of urea manufacturing is supplied as nitrogen-released fertilizer. That is crucial to note that automotive-grade urea is of a much greater grade purity than fertilizer urea. If a reduced grade fertilizer urea is supplied in automotive engines girlfriend risk disintegration of the SCR and feasible ruin the engine. It may even trigger ECM sensors to wrongly prompt a DEF Tank north warning.

8. Go DEF Evaporate after A duration of Disuse?

The prize is yes and no. The temperature at which DEF combines v NOx exhaust appropriate out of the cylinder head through the valves wide open is between 1400-1600 F. The chemical reaction takes ar at much hotter temperatures than on a warm sunny day. For instance it would take over 2 years a constant rate of 125 degrees F for the DPF come turn right into ammonia and evaporate. However any type of temperature end 86 F you risk some evaporation as result of DEF being nearly 2/3 water. Girlfriend don’t need to worry around a gallon or two of the stuff turning bad or evaporating from disuse uneven exposed to consistent hot climates.

9. Is DEF a Toxic and Harmful Chemical?

The active ingredient in DEF, urea, has been chemically synthesized because 1828 very first by German scientist Friedrich Wöhler after dealing with silver cyanate with ammonium chloride. Urea was very first discovered in to pee by netherlands chemist Herman Boerhaave in 1727. Urea is largely used in fertilizer for farming but likewise found the chemical industry, explosives, lotions, skin creams, hair removers, plastics, dish soaps and also power fuel cells. Urea and also consequently DEF is not overly toxic to humans. Urea have the right to be irritating come eyes, skin and also the respiratory tract but not life threatening. High concentrations in the blood have the right to be damaging come humans but ingestion of low concentrations the urea ,given an sufficient water gulp down of water, room not harmful. In nature urea can reason algal booms which as soon as decomposes above its heater or melting suggest can reason toxic gases. Combined with specific oxidants, chlorides, nitrites can cause fire or even explosions.

10. What happens to the engine if the DEF Tank is empty?

All diesel engine manufacturersare now forced by the EPA to incorporate some tiered warning device (internal gauges top top the dash) to let the driver know specifically how near to north the DEF tank is. If you neglect the DEF warning the truck will cease come work. Part diesel engine manufacturers enable the engine to walk into reduced power setting so the truck can “limp home” or limit the variety of times you can turn the engine over. At some allude though the diesel engine will certainly not start. Law the DEF tank as with you would the fuel tank; friend don’t desire to end up stranded somewhere due to the fact that you didn’t refill the DEF tank.

11. Walk DEF have actually a low Freeze Point?

The traditional 32.5% equipment of DEF will begin go crystallize and also freeze in ~ 12 F. The Urea and also water in DEF, once mixed, will certainly freeze in ~ the exact same rate. This is helpful to the user since when the liquid thaws the DEF equipment does not become diluted or overly concentrated. Freezing and also thawing cycles has no influence on the great of the product. DEF increases when frozen as much as 6.5% - 7% through volume. The packaging allows for leeway for freezing periods.

12. What is the best method to store DEF native freezing?

It is perfectly for sure to save a gallon or two of DEF in your auto however the is not advisable. DEF will begin to decompose at 86 F. That is really easy to forget around the DEF

sitting in the earlier of your truck and given an extended period of hot days the fluid can end up being unstable and decompose but at a an extremely minimal rate. A diluted DEF without the mixture the 32.5% urea have the right to be damaging come DEF and SCR however cases of that happening are rare. In turn DEF will certainly freeze in the DEF tank on very cold days below 12 F. That is perfect normal and also will no hurt the engine. The SCR systems space designed to provide heat to the DEF tank i beg your pardon will quickly thaw the tank and supporting it is provided lines.

13. Have the right to I add anti-freezing systems to the DEF mixture to store it indigenous freezing?

DEF is a very particular formula the 32.5% Urea and water but the solution consists of other compound in minute amounts to stabilize the product. One additive to the mixture would certainly upset the very an exact chemical makeup and thus mitigate the NOx reduce properties. Further blending of the DEF mixture will deteriorate its capacity to job-related properly as will cause harm to the SCR system.

14. Exactly how much go DEF Weigh and also will it pack down mine tuck?

DEF weighs about 9 lbs per gallon. A usual light duty/medium duty van will have a tank around 3-5 gallons.

15. How is the production of DEF regulated and also can ns make mine own?

It is not recommended that the direct customer produce their very own DEF. DEF is closely regulated and also has specific requirements for keeping chemical purity and contains ingredients the are an essential to functioning in conjunction through the SCR system. Caterpillar, Cummins, Detroit Diesel among others need that the DEF to be supplied with the SCR systems and also meet every ISO guidelines and API requirements. API certification is a completely voluntary program created by the American Petroleum academy (API) i beg your pardon certifies the chemical pureness the DEF and that manufacturers meet ISO specifications. All major brands that DEF available to the customer market satisfy API Certification.

16. What is the shelf life that DEF?

If the DEF is stored in ~ ambient temperatures of 75 F v no significant periods that exposure to heat over 86 F climate the batch the DEF will last around two years. If a package of DEF is exposed to durations of heater the liquid will last roughly one year.

17. Who room the significant manufacturers the DEF Fluid?

There are many manufacturers the DEF Fluid. The website, “Oilmen truck Tanks” has actually compiled a perform of 13 significant manufactures. DEF is found at most significant truck stops, auto parts stores and convenience shop for about $2-$3 every gallon.

18. How have the right to you identify the period of a container of DEF?

Every solitary DEF package has actually a manufacturers date located somewhere on the product. Most likely it is ~ above the former of the package near the bottom. This day code will tell the exact date the batch to be produced and subsequently the period of the party of DEF. One gallon containers have actually a laser code imprinted ~ above the bottle. Bigger 2-5 gallon tanks usually have a small date password imprinted ~ above the label of the product. Bigger drums the DEF fluid (55 gallons +) and totes (275-355 gallons) will have a bigger label applied to the side or peak of the drum. Reading a manufactures code can be a little bit tricky and each one is a little bit different. Generally the very first digit that the date code represents the batch number and also the next 6 digits reflect the day the batch was filled at the factory.

19. Exactly how do you recognize a DEF pour it until it is full Pump Vs. A Diesel Fuel Pump?

There have actually been lot of measures implemented to prevent diesel engine fuelfrom gift pumped right into the DEF tank and vice versa. “Green” is the international color of diesel filling stations and also pumps. “Blue” has been adopted as the shade of an option to represent DEF fluid. A traditional nozzle diameter of 19 mm has actually been designed come dispense DEF; a traditional diesel fuel nozzle is 22 mm. The tank lid on pretty lot all van should also be a "brightly colored blue" as a last preventative visual measure up to stop diesel indigenous going right into the DEF tank.

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20. What have to I perform if I accidentally dispense diesel fuel right into the DEF?

First off, execute not

panic. Secondly, execute not under any circumstances begin the engine. Just dumping diesel fuel in the DEF and also vice versa (DEF in the fuel tank) will not injury your engine if you execute not begin the engine. The SCR should recognize the there is a solution various other than DEF in the tank and also notify the driver via the ECM readout on the dashboard. The is additionally important not to move the vehicle. Relocating the automobile can bring about the spread out of the fuel into the lines and also into the SCR. The ideal thing to do is drainpipe the tank through the auto in its original position. If the engine is started for even a brief time diesel fuel will damage the SCR catalyst i beg your pardon is an extremely costly come replace and will be out of warranty. If DEF start the fuel system and also spread transparent the engine it will ruin the diesel engine eventually. The fuel mechanism lines space not compatible through DEF and slowly corrode and over time.