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A bicycle safety policy that has gained far-ranging interest and activity in state legislatures is 3-feet or safe passing laws. These laws seek come ensure that, when passing bicycles, motor vehicles enable adequate an are to prevent sideswiping bicyclists or bring about them come overcorrect to prevent a vehicle. Skeptics doubt such laws can be enforced and also whether 3 feet allows sufficient space for bicyclists. In addition, countless bicyclists feeling that legislations dictating they need to ride come the much right that a lane room of much more concern since they regularly encourage too-close passing and also leave bicyclists fragile to gift “doored” through a parked automobile or to encountering roadside debris. Supporters state that these passing laws at least develop a legal framework to protect bicyclists who room hit or buzzed native behind, develop a much less arbitrary standard and also raise awareness the the prestige of safe passing.

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Wisconsin became the very first state, in 1973, come enact together a law; several much more states have because enacted such measures. Together of September 2021, 35states—Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, new Hampshire, brand-new Jersey, north Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, >Pennsylvania,South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin and Wyoming—and the ar of Columbia have enacted passing laws that need the motorist to leaving at least3-feet or an ext when passing a bicyclist.

North Carolina has actually a 2 feet passing need for motorists, and also also permits passing in a no-pass zone if a motorist leaves 4 feet clearance.

Threestates have laws that go beyond a 3-feet passing law. Brand-new Jersey and also Pennsylvania have4-feet passing laws. Southern Dakota enacted a two-tiered passing law in 2015; with a three-foot passing need on roadways with post speeds that thirty-five miles per hour or less and also a minimum of 6 feet separation for roadways with speed boundaries greater 보다 thirty-five miles every hour.

Additionally, fivestates, Delaware, Kentucky, Nevada, Oklahoma and Washington, call for a motorist to totally changelanes as soon as passinga bicyclist if there is more than one lane proceeding in the very same direction.

In 8other states, over there are general laws that provide that motorists must pass at a “safe distance.” these laws commonly state the vehicles should pass bicyclists in ~ a safe distance and speed; Montana's law, for example, needs a motorist to "overtake and pass a person riding a bicycle only once the operator of the motor automobile can do so safely there is no endangering the person riding the bicycle.

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The box allows you to conduct a full-text search or form the state name.


State Statutes regarding Motorists pass BicyclistsStatesStatuteSummary that Laws
Alabama

Ala. Password § 32-5A-82

This law defines, for purposes of a automobile overtaking and passing a bicycle, a safe distance to median not less than 3 feet top top a roadway that has actually a marked bicycle lane or a roadway there is no a marked bicycle roadway if the roadway has actually a marked speed limit of 45 miles every hour or less and the roadway go not have actually a dual yellow line separating cars from oncoming traffic indicating a no-passing zone. This candlestick only apply when a cyclist is talk within 2 feet of the best shoulder that the roadway.

Alaska

None

Arizona

A.R.S. § 28-735

Exercise due treatment by leaving a for sure distance in between the engine vehicle and also the bike of not less than 3 (3) feet till the motor automobile is safely past the overtaken bicycle.

Arkansas

Exercise early out care and also pass come the left at a safe distance of not much less than three (3) feet and also shall not again drive to the ideal side that the roadway until safely clean of the overtaken bicycle.

California

Cal Veh. Code § 21760

A driver the a motor automobile shall no overtake or pass a bicycle proceeding in the same direction top top a highway at a distance of much less than three feet in between any component of the engine vehicle and also any part of the bike or that operator. The driver that a motor auto overtaking and also passing a bike shall do so in ~ a safe street that does no interfere through the safe operation of the overtaken bicycle, having actually due regard for the size and also speed of the motor vehicle and also the bicycle, traffic conditions, weather, visibility, and the surface and also width that the highway.

Colorado

Allow the bicyclist at least a 3 (3) foot separation between the ideal side that the driver's vehicle, including all winter or other projections, and also the left side of the bicyclist at every times.

Connecticut

Conn. Gen. Stat. § 14-232

A "safe distance" way not less than three (3) feet as soon as the driver of a auto overtakes and passes a person riding a bicycle.

Delaware

21 Del. C. § 4116

On any kind of roadway where the travel lane is also narrow for an overtaking automobile to take trip safely side-by-side in ~ the lane through the overtaken bicycle, the driver the the overtaking car shall, yielding the right-of-way and proceeding with caution, move totally into the roadway to the left before passing. On any kind of roadway where the take trip lane is vast enough because that an overtaking auto to take trip safely side-by-side within the lane through the bicycle, the driver of the overtaking auto shallreduce the speed of the vehicle and also leave a reasonable and prudent street by giving a minimum of 3 feet the clearance while passing together bicyclist.

District that Columbia

Rule 18-2202.10

Exercise due treatment by leaving a safe distance, but in no instance less than 3 (3) feet, when overtaking and also passing a bicycle.

Florida

Fla. Stat. § 316.083

Must pass the bicycle or other nonmotorized automobile at a safe street of not less than 3 (3) feet in between the vehicle and the bike or various other nonmotorized vehicle.

If together a motion cannot it is in safely accomplished, the motorist have to remain at a safe distance behind the bicycle or other nonmotorized auto or electrical bicycle until the driver can safely happen at a distance of not less than 3 feet and must safely clear the overtaken bicycle or various other nonmotorized car or electric bicycle. A driver may safely and also briefly journey to the left that the center of the roadway come safely happen a bicyclist.

Georgia

Leave a for sure distance between such vehicle and the bicycle and also shall preserve such clearance until safely past the overtaken bicycle. The hatchet "safe distance" means not less than 3 (3) feet.

A motorist must make a lane adjust into a lane not nearby to the bicycle if possible in the currently road and traffic conditions. If a lane adjust would be impossible, prohibition by law, or unsafe, the motorist must alleviate the speed of the motor auto to a reasonable and proper rate for the currently road and traffic conditions, which rate shall be at least ten miles per hour less than the posted speed limit or 25 miles per hour, whichever is more, and also proceed around the bicycle through at least three feet between such vehicle and also the bike at every times. A violation of this shall it is in a misdemeanor punished by a well of not more than $250.00.

Guam

None

Hawaii

Hawaii Rev. Stat §291C-43

The driver of a automobile passing or overtaking a bicyclist proceeding in the very same direction shall enable at least three feet that separation in between the ideal side the the driver's vehicle, including all mirrors or various other protuberances, and the left side of the bicyclist, and shall no again drive to the right side the the roadway till safely clean of the overtaken bicycle.

Idaho

None

Illinois

Leave a for sure distance, however not less than three (3) feet, once passing the bicycle or individual and also shall preserve that distance until safely previous the overtaken bicycle or individual. Adriver may pass a bicyclist in a no-passing zone, provided: the bicyclist is traveling at much less than fifty percent the post speed; the driver is may be to pass without exceeding the rate limit and also there is enough distance come the left of the centerline for the motor auto to overtake and also pass the bicyclist.

Indiana

None

Iowa

None

Kansas

K.S.A. § 8-1516

Pass come the left in ~ a distance of not much less than three (3) feet and do no drive to the right side of the roadway until the auto is safely clean of the overtaken bicycle.

Kentucky

K.R.S.189.340

Vehicles overtaking a bike proceeding in the exact same direction shall: 1. If there is much more than onelane for traffic proceeding in the samedirection, move the car to the immediate left, if the lane is obtainable and moving in the roadway is sensibly safe; or 2.If there is only one roadway for traffic proceeding in the exact same direction, pass to the left the the bicycle in ~ a distance of not less thanthree feet in between any part of the vehicle and the bicycle and maintain that distance till safely past the overtaken bicycle. If spaceon the roadway is not obtainable to have actually a minimum street of 3 feet in between the vehicle and the bicycle, climate the driver the the passing automobile shall usage reasonable fist in happen the bicyclist.The driver that a motor auto may journey to the left that the center of a roadway, including when a no-passing region is marked, to pass a human being operating a bicycle just if the roadway to the left of the center is unobstructed because that a adequate distance to permit the driver to happen the human being operating the bicycle safely and avoid interference with oncoming traffic.

Louisiana

La. R.S. 32:76.1

Pass through not much less than three (3) feet and also maintain together clearance until safely previous the overtaken bicycle.

Maine

29-A M.R.S. § 2070

Pass v a distance between the motor vehicle and also the bike of not much less than 3 (3) feet.

MarylandMd. Transportation Code Ann. § 21-1209 and §21-307When overtaking a bicycle, happen safely in ~ a distance of not much less than 3 feet.A motorist might pass ~ above the left side of the roadway in a no-passing zone to do the minimum adjustment vital to overtake and also pass in ~ a safe street a bicycle travel in the very same direction.
Massachusetts

ALM GL ch. 89, § 2

If that is not possible to overtake a bicycle or other auto at a safe distance in the exact same lane, the overtaking auto shall usage all or component of an surrounding lane if that is for sure to perform so or wait for a safe opportunity to overtake.

Michigan

Mich. Stat. Ann §257.636

The driver the a motor vehicle overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the exact same direction shall happen at a safe distance of at least 3 feet to the left of that bicycle or, if the is impracticable to pass the bicycle at a distance of 3 feet to the left, at a safe distance to the left of that bicycle at a safe speed, and also when safely clear of the overtaken bike shall take it up a place as near the right-hand edge of the key traveled part of the highway together is practicable.

Notwithstanding ar 640, if that is for sure to do so, the driver of a automobile overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the very same direction might overtake and also pass the bike in a no-passing zone.

Minnesota

Minn. Stat. § 169.18

Leave a for sure distance yet in no situation less than three (3) feet clearance, once passing a bike or individual and maintain clearance until safely previous the overtaken bike or individual.

Mississippi

Leave a safe distance of not much less than 3 (3) feet in between the vehicle and also the bicyclist and maintain such clearance until safely past the bicycle.

Missouri

§ 300.411 R.S.Mo

Leave a safe distance as soon as passing the bicycle, and also maintain clearance until safely previous the overtaken bicycle.

Montana

Overtake and pass a human being riding a bicycle only as soon as the operator of the motor vehicle can do so safely there is no endangering the person riding the bicycle.

Nebraska

Neb. Rev. Stat. 60-6, 133

The driver that a auto overtaking a bike or electric an individual assistive mobility maker proceeding in the very same direction shall exercise due care, i beg your pardon shall include, yet not be restricted to, leave a safe distance of no less than three feet clearance, when applicable, when passing a bike or electric personal assistive mobility maker and shall keep such clearance till safely previous the overtaken bike or electric personal assistive mobility device.

Nevada

Nev. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 484B.270

If there is an ext than one lane for website traffic proceeding in the exact same direction, the motorist must relocate the vehicle to the lane to the prompt left, if the roadway is accessible and moving right into the roadway is sensibly safe. Otherwise, a motorist should pass come the left through no less than 3 (3) feet in between any portion of the vehicle and the bicycle.

The law likewise authorizes a driver, if it is safe, to happen to the left that the center of the highway and/or in a no-passing zone.

New Hampshire

RSA 265:143-a

Leave a reasonable and prudent distance between the vehicle and also the bicycle. The distance shall it is in presumed to be reasonable and prudent if that is at least three (3) feet when the automobile is travel at 30 miles every hour or less, through one extr foot that clearance compelled for every 10 miles every hour over 30 miles per hour.

New JerseyN.J. Laws, location 39

The operator of a motor car approaching a pedestrian, bicycle, low-speed electric bicycle, low-speed electrical scooter, or any type of other lawful personal conveyance shall technique with early out caution and shall, lacking any other direction through a legislation enforcement officer, continue as follows: (1) when feasible under existing safety and traffic conditions, make a lane change into a roadway not surrounding to the pedestrian or personal conveyance; (2) if a lane change cannot be made, leaving a reasonable and safe distance of not less than four feet if approaching the pedestrian or personal conveyance and also maintain a street of at least four feet till the motor auto has safely passed the conveyance; or (3) if it is not possible, prohibition by law, or unsafe to make a lane adjust pursuant to this legislation or to leave a reasonable and safe distance of not much less than 4 feet, the motor automobile operator shall reduce the speed of the motor car to 25 miles per hour or a reduced posted speed and be ready to stop; the operator may pass the pedestrian or an individual conveyance only if, considering the size and speed of the motor vehicle, website traffic conditions, weather, visibility, and also the surface and also width of the roadway, passing does not endanger the safety and security of a pedestrian, operator that the personal conveyance, or any type of other human on the roadway. A person who commits a violation of the provisions the this ar which outcomes in bodily injury shall it is in fined $500 and also assessed 2 motor car penalty points; if no bodily injury results, the violator shall it is in fined $100 and also shall no be assessed any kind of penalty points.

New Mexico

None

New York

NY CLS Veh. & Tr. § 1122-a

The operator the a vehicle overtaking, from behind, a bike proceeding on the same side the a roadway shall happen to the left of together bicycle at a safe distance until safely clean thereof.

North Carolina

N.C. Gen Stat. § 20-149 and also 20-150

The driver of any kind of such auto overtaking another vehicle proceeding in the same direction shall pass at the very least two feet come the left thereof, and also shall not again drive to the right side the the highway until safely clear of together overtaken vehicle. In a no-pass zone, a motorist may pass a bicyclist if (1) The slow moving automobile to be passed is a bicycle or a moped. (2) The slow moving auto is proceeding in the very same direction together the faster moving vehicle. (3) The driver that the quicker moving automobile either (i) provides a minimum of four feet between the much faster moving vehicle and the slow moving auto or (ii) fully enters the left lane of the highway. (4) The operator the the slower moving auto is no (i) do a left turn or (ii) signaling to communicate a left turn. (5) The driver the the much faster moving vehicle complies through all various other applicable requirements.

The driver of a car shall leave a safe distance as soon as overtaking and passing a bicycle proceeding in the exact same direction on a roadway and also shall maintain clearance until safely clean of the overtaken bicycle. "Safe distance" as offered in this section method no much less than three feet <0.91 meters> clearance.

Ohio

Ohio Rev. Code Ann. § 4511.27

The operator of a auto overtaking one more vehicle shall pass to the left in ~ a for sure distance and shall not again drive to the best until safely clean of the overtaken vehicle. As soon as a motor automobile overtakes and also passes a bicycle, 3 feet or higher is taken into consideration a for sure passing distance.

Oklahoma

47 Okl. St. §11-1208

Pass through a safe distance in between the engine vehicle and the bike of not less than three (3) feet until the motor automobile is safely previous the overtaken bicycle. If there is more than one roadway for web traffic in the very same direction, a motorist happen a cyclist shall move the car to the lane to the instant left if the lane is available and moving into the roadway is fairly safe, and also the motorist shall not move ago into the travel lane until the vehicle is safely clean of the overtaken human operating a bicycle. If there is only one lane for web traffic proceeding in the exact same direction, a motorist shall no overtake or pass a bicycle at a street of less than three (3) feet between any part of the engine vehicle and also any part of the bike or that is operator, and also shall not relocate again come the ideal side the the highway until the auto is safely clean of the overtaken human being operating a bicycle. A motorist might drive to the left of the center of the roadway, consisting of when a no-passing zone is marked, to pass a person operating a bicycle only if the roadway come the left that the center is unobstructed because that a enough distance to permit the driver to happen the human being operating the bicycle safely and also avoid interference with oncoming traffic.”
Oregon

ORS § 811.065

A speed much less than 35 mph and also a "safe distance" method a street that is sufficient to prevent call with the human operating the bicycle if the human were to loss into the driver's lane of traffic.

Pennsylvania

75 Pa.C.S. § 3303

Pass come the left the the pedalcycle within not much less than four (4) feet at a careful and also prudent decreased speed.

Puerto Rico

None

Rhode Island

A speed much less than 15 mph and a "safe distance" method a distance that is adequate to prevent contact with the person operating the bike if the person were to autumn into the driver's lane of traffic.

South Carolina

A driver of a motor auto must at every times keep a safe operating distance in between the engine vehicle and a bicycle.

South Dakota

A motorist overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the exact same direction must allow a minimum of a three-foot separation in between the ideal side the the driver's vehicle, including any type of mirror or other projection, and the left next of the bike if the posted border is thirty-five miles per hour or less and also a minimum of 6 feet separation if the posted border is higher than thirty-five miles every hour. A motorist overtaking a bicycle proceeding in the exact same direction may partially cross the highway centerline in between two lanes of travel in the very same direction if it have the right to be perform safely. The driver that the motor automobile shall maintain that separation till safely past the overtaken bicycle.

Tennessee

Leave a for sure distance between the motor vehicle and the bicycle of not less than three feet (3') and shall preserve the clearance until safely previous the overtaken bicycle.

Texas

None

Utah

Utah password Ann. § 41-6a-706.5

A motor auto may no knowingly, intentionally, or recklessly operate a motor auto within three (3) feet the a moving bicycle, unless the operator of the motor automobile operates the motor automobile within a reasonable and safe street of the bicycle.

Vermont

23 V.S.A. § 1033

Exercise early care, which contains increasing clearance, to pass the fragile user safely.

Virginia

Va. Password Ann. § 46.2-839

and§ 46.2-905

A reasonable rate at least three feet come the left the the overtaken bicycle. If the roadway of take trip is not broad enough to enable the overtaking motor auto to pass in the manner compelled in this ar while in the same lane as the overtaken vehicle, the overtaking car shall change lanes.

Washington

Wash Rev. Password §46.61.110

A driver approaching a pedestrian, bicyclist, farm vehicle or human being riding an pet who is on traveling in the appropriate lane that a roadway or ~ above the right-hand shoulder or bicycle lane of the roadway, must: on a roadway v two lanes or an ext for traffic moving in the direction the travel, before passing and also until safely clean of the individual, move fully into a roadway to the left that the right lane when it is safe to carry out so.

On a roadway with only one lane for traffic moving in the direction that travel and also when there is enough room to the left of the individual, before passing and also until safely clear of the separation, personal, instance a driver must minimize speed to a safe speed for passing loved one to the speed of the individual; and pass at a for sure distance, where practicable that at the very least three feet, to plainly avoid comes into contact with the individual. Once there is poor room to the left that the individual, the driver must, prior to passing and until safely clean of the individual, move fully into the lane for traffic relocating in opposing direction when it is safe to carry out so.

West Virginia

W Va. Code § 17C-7-3

The driver that a vehicle overtaking a bicycle travel in the very same direction shall pass to the left the the bicycle at a street of not much less than three feet at a careful and reduced speed, and may not again journey to the best side the the roadway until safely clear of the overtaken bicycle.

Wisconsin

Wis. Stat. § 346.075

Exercise early out care, leaving a for sure distance, however in no instance less than three (3) feet clearance when passing the bicycle and maintain clearance till safely previous the overtaken bicycle.

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Wyoming

A motorist overtaking and also passing a bicycle the is operation lawfully and proceeding in the same direction, must, when space allows, keep at least a three-foot separation in between the ideal side of the driver's engine vehicle, including all mirrors and also other projections from the engine vehicle, and also the bicycle.