Study conference 2  Nutrients and also their Sources


In the previous session you learned around nutrition, nutrients, food and food choices. In this session, you will certainly learn around each nutrient in an ext detail. You will learn around the significant categories that nutrients, the main sources of these, your function, and also how ours body offers each the these nutrient for healthy and balanced growth and also development.

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There space seven key classes of nutrient that the human body needs. These are carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, fibre and water. That is important that anyone consumes these 7 nutrients on a daily basis to assist them build their bodies and also maintain your health. Deficiencies, excesses and imbalances in diet have the right to produce negative impacts on health, i beg your pardon may lead to diseases.

This study session will help you to explain to families and individuals in your neighborhood the prestige of spend a healthy and balanced diet, and also how to perform this with the resources available to them.

Learning Outcomes for research Session 2

When you have studied this session, you must be able to:

2.1 Define and use correctly every one of the crucial words printed in bold. (SAQ 2.1)

2.2 Classify foods items into teams according to their nutrients and also differentiate in between macronutrients and also micronutrients. (SAQ 2.1)

2.3 perform the sources and functions of the nutrients. (SAQs 2.1 and 2.3)

2.4 describe vitamins and their classification. (SAQ 2.2)

2.5 describe the attributes of the typical minerals that people require in your diet. (SAQ 2.2)

2.6 explain a well balanced diet for world in her community. (SAQ 2.3)

2.1  Classification of essential nutrients

Based ~ above the amount of the nutrients that each human being needs come consume ~ above a daily basis, this nutrients room categorised right into two groups. These are macronutrients, which must be spend in fairly huge amounts, and also micronutrients, which space only required in small amounts.

2.1.1  Macronutrients

‘Macro’ method large; as their name argues these are nutrients which civilization need come eat regularly and also in a fairly large amount. They incorporate carbohydrates, fats, proteins, fibre and water. This substances are required for the it is provided of energy and growth, for metabolism and other body functions.

Metabolism method the procedure involved in the generation that energy and also all the ‘building blocks’ forced to keep the body and its functions.

Macronutrients provide a most calories but the amount of calories detailed varies, relying on the food source. For example, every gram of carbohydrate or protein provides 4 calories, while fat gives nine calories because that each gram.

2.1.2  Micronutrients

As your name suggests (‘micro’ method small) micronutrients space substances which civilization need in your diet in only little amounts. These incorporate minerals and also vitamins.

Although most foods are mixtures of nutrients, many of lock contain a lot of one nutrient and a small of the various other nutrients. Foods items are regularly grouped follow to the nutrient that they save in abundance (see crate 2.1).

Foods the contain a the majority of protein are referred to as body-building foodstuffs or growing foods. Foodstuffs that save a most fat or carbohydrates and also perhaps just a tiny protein are dubbed energy-giving foods.

Foods in which the most essential nutrients space vitamins or minerals are referred to as protective foods.

What are few of the usual foods spend in your community? do a list in your research Diary.

You can have consisted of some the the following in her list; ‘injera’, maize, ‘kocho’, bread, porridge (‘genfo’), egg, meat, butter, ‘shiro’, ‘kitta’, milk, cheese, yogurt, different species of fruits, sugar cane, cabbage, lettuce, lentils, nuts, beans, fish, chicken, fish, oils, and also breastmilk.

If people are come stay healthy and balanced they have to eat a combined diet of different foods i beg your pardon contain the appropriate amount of nutrients.

2.2  Macronutrients in detail

You are now going to look at the different macronutrients in much more detail.

2.2.1  Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are referred to as energy-giving foods. They administer energy in the kind of calories the the body demands to be able to work, and also to support other functions.

Carbohydrates are essential in big amounts by the body. Indeed, as much as 65% of ours energy comes from carbohydrates. They are the body’s main source of fuel since they are conveniently converted right into energy. This power is normally in the kind of glucose, which all tissues and cells in our bodies easily use.

For the brain, kidneys, central nervous system and muscles to duty properly, they require carbohydrates. This carbohydrates are usually stored in the muscles and the liver, wherein they are later used for energy.

The key sources the carbohydrates are bread, wheat, potato of all kinds, maize, rice, cassava, ‘shiro’, pasta, macaroni, ‘kocho’, banana, sweets, sugar cane, sweet fruits, and honey. Other foods items like vegetables, beans, nuts and also seeds save carbohydrates, but in lesser amounts.

2.2.2  Classification the carbohydrates

Based on the number of sugar units, carbohydrates space classified right into three groups; these room monosaccharides, disaccharides and also polysaccharides. You need to know the great of carbohydrates to permit you to give relevant advice to patients with handicap like diabetes (when someone has troubles regulating the amounts of glucose in your body).

Monosaccharides and disaccharides are described as simple sugars or simple carbohydrate that our human body can conveniently utilise. Because that this reason, people with diabetes mellitus do not do it eat too many of this carbohydrates. Examples encompass sugar, honey, sweet fruits and sugar cane. Polysaccharides are called complex carbohydrates and they need to be damaged down into simple sugars to be used by our body. They have the right to be consumed by diabetic patients without restriction. Examples include starch and cellulose.

Can girlfriend think of examples of foodstuffs that are resources of carbohydrate?

Bread, ‘teff’, maize, ‘kocho’, potatoes, sugar cane, honey, sweet fruits, pasta, macaroni and also ‘shiro’ are great sources that carbohydrates.

Which the these foods are basic sugars and should not be consumed in large quantities by patient who have diabetes?

Sugar cane, honey, sweet fruits and biscuits are amongst the food groups that shouldn’t be consumed by patients v diabetes.

2.3  Proteins

About 10–35% that calories must come indigenous protein. Proteins are required in our diets for development (especially crucial for children, teens and also pregnant women) and also to improve immune functions. They also play critical role in making essential hormones and also enzymes, in tissue repair, maintaining lean muscle mass, and also supplying power in times once carbohydrates room not available.

Pregnant women need protein to build their bodies and that of the babies and placentas, to do extra blood and for fat storage. Breastfeeding mothers require protein to do breastmilk.

2.3.1  Sources the protein

The main sources that proteins are meats, chicken, eggs, breastmilk, beans, ground nuts, lentils, fish, cheese and milk.

All pet foods contain an ext protein than plants and also are therefore usually much better sources that body structure foods. However, even though tree proteins (see number 2.1) space usually no as great for body-building as animal proteins, they have the right to become much more effective nutritionally once both are blended with every other.


Look again at the list of foodstuffs you wrote in section 2.1.2. I beg your pardon of these foods items are resources of protein? i beg your pardon of this food groups have good quality protein?

Beans, nuts, lentils, breastmilk, meat, egg, chicken, cheese and also milk are sources of protein. Really good quality protein deserve to be discovered in pet sources such together breastmilk, meat, eggs, chicken, cheese and also milk.

2.4  Fats and also oils

Fats and oils are concentrated sources of energy and also so are vital nutrients because that young children who require a the majority of energy-rich food. Fat can additionally make meals an ext tasty and also satisfying. Fat is found in meat, chicken, milk products, butters, creams, avocado, cooking oils and fats, cheese, fish and ground nuts.

2.4.1  Classification of fats

Fats are classified right into saturated and also unsaturated fats. The group is important to allow you to recommend your community around which fats have the right to be consumed with much less risk come people’s health. Saturated fats are not an excellent for a who health.

Saturated fats space usually solid at cool temperatures. Eat too lot saturated fat is not great for a person’s health, as it can reason heart and also blood vessel problems.

Unsaturated fats space usually fluid at room temperature. These types of fat are healthy fats. Examples encompass fats indigenous fish, oil seed (sesame and sunflower), maize oil and ground seed oil and breastmilk.

As a basic rule, plant resources of fat are far better for a person’s wellness than the animal sources, because pet fats contain more saturated fats.

Look at the perform of foods items you composed in section 2.1.2. I beg your pardon of these foodstuffs are resources of fats? i beg your pardon of this fats space not healthy fats?

Cooking oils, butter, meat, chicken, fish, ground seed oils and also breastmilk are among the resources of fats. Butter, meat fats and oils from pet sources are not great fats, because they have actually a high amount of saturated fats.

2.5  Water

You might remember from examine Session 1 that a 50 kg adult contains about 31 litres of water and a one year old, 10 kg boy contains practically 8 litres of water. Nearly every part of the human body contains big amounts that water.

People deserve to live without solid food for a few weeks, however we can not live there is no water for much more than a couple of days. One adult needs about 2–3 litres of water every day. The is why providing drinks are so essential when civilization lose a many water, such as as soon as they have diarrhoea.

Water is important for life. We require water for a variety of reasons:

For the human body to do cells and also fluids such as tears, digestive juices and breastmilkFor the body to do sweat for cooling itselfFor crucial body processes — many take location in waterFor keeping the lining of the mouth, intestine, eyelids and also lungs wet and also healthyFor the manufacturing of urine, i m sorry carries waste native the body.

2.6  Fibre

Fibre is a mixture of various carbohydrates which room not spend like various other nutrients yet pass v the gut nearly unchanged. Foodstuffs rich in fibre are ‘kocho’; vegetables like cabbage, ‘kosta’, carrots, cassava; fruits choose banana and avocado; peas and beans; whole-grain cereals favor wheat flour and refined maize or sorghum.

2.6  Including fibre in the diet

Fibre need to be consisted of in the diet for the adhering to reasons:

Fibre provides food bulky or enlarge — this can aid a human being who is overweight to eat much less foodFibre provides the faeces soft and bulky; this can help prevent constipationFibre slowly the absorption of nutrients, so that helps nutrients to go into the blood stream slowly. This is essential for patients v diabetes mellitus.

In this section you have actually learned around the macronutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water and also fibre, and how lock nourish the body. You are currently going to learn an ext about vitamins and also minerals, the important micronutrients.

2.7  Micronutrients in detail

2.7.1  Vitamins

Vitamins are teams of connected substances current in small amounts in foodstuffs and also are essential for the human body to role normally. Vitamin are likewise called safety foods. They room grouped with each other because, as their name implies, they space a crucial factor in the diet.

Classifications of vitamins

Vitamins space classified right into two groups:

Fat dissolve vitamins (vitamins A, D, E and K) are soluble in fats and also fat solvents. They room insoluble in water. Therefore these are utilised just if there is sufficient fat in the body.

Water soluble vitamins (vitamins B and C, and folic acid) are soluble in water and so they can not be save on computer in the body.

The ideal sources of micronutrients in our diets room fruits and vegetables. These two food groups contain vital vitamins and also minerals. Pet sources of foodstuffs are additionally both great sources that micronutrients. However, an sufficient micronutrient intake deserve to only be completed through adequate intake that a balanced diet that contains plenty that fruits and vegetables. Table 2.1 overleaf sets out the functions of some of the crucial vitamins and also examples of resources of food because that each that these.

Vitamins FunctionFood sources
Vitamin A

Night vision

Healing epithelial cells

Normal breakthrough of teeth and also bones

Breastmilk, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, pumpkins

Mangoes, papaya, carrots

Liver, kidney, egg yolk, milk, butter, cheese cream

Vitamin D

Needed for absorption that calcium from little intestines

Calcification that the skeleton

Ultra violet light from the sun

Eggs, butter, fish

fortified oils, fats and also cereals

Vitamin KFor blood clotting

Green irpari vegetables

Fruits, cereals, meat, dairy products

B complexMetabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats

Milk, egg yolk, liver, kidney and heart

Whole serial cereals, meat, totality bread, fish, bananas

Vitamin C

Prevention that scurvy

Aiding wound healing

Assisting absorption of iron

Fresh fruits (oranges, banana, mango, grapefruits, lemons, potatoes) and vegetables (cabbage, carrots, pepper, tomatoes)


Epithelial cells kind the thin layer of tissue lining the gut, respiratory and also genitourinary systems.

Calcification refers to the hardening of skeletal by calcium deposits.

Scurvy is a condition caused by vitamin C deficiency which leads to ill skin, bleeding gums and also internal bleeding.

2.7.2  Minerals

Minerals space the building material that human being need to ensure the health and correct working of their soft tissues, fluids and also their skeleton. Examples of minerals encompass calcium, iron, iodine, fluorine, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, selenium, and also sodium. Table 2.2 outlines the functions of few of these crucial minerals and also examples of sources of food for each that these.

MineralsFunctionFood sources
CalciumGives bones and also teeth rigidity and also strength

Milk, cheese and also dairy products

Foods fortified with calcium, e.g. Flour, cereals. Eggs, fish cabbage

Iron Formation the haemoglobin

Meat and meat products

Eggs, bread, eco-friendly leafy vegetables, pulses, fruits

Iodine For normal metabolism of cells

Iodised salt, sea vegetables, yogurt, cow"s milk, eggs, and cheese

Fish; plants grown in iodine-rich soil

ZincFor kids to grow and also develop normally; because that wound healingMaize, fish, breastmilk, meat, beans
FluorineHelps to save teeth strongWater

What room the key sources the micronutrients and also why space they crucial as component of a healthy diet?

Fruits and also vegetables are the main sources of micronutrients. Animal foods also have micronutrients. The vitamins and also minerals that make up micronutrients have a an important role in allowing the body to function properly. Your function as a Health expansion Practitioner is to advise world in your neighborhood to have actually a well balanced diet that consists of micronutrients.

You will certainly learn more about medium of funds in study Session 7, in details the affect of deficiencies in vitamin A, iron and iodine ~ above individuals and also communities.

2.8  A balanced diet

You have currently come throughout the ax ‘balanced diet’ number of times in this Module. In this section we’ll comment on what a well balanced diet is and the services of a well balanced diet. The is crucial that you know enough to have the ability to recommend a well balanced diet for the civilization in your community.

Eating a balanced diet means choosing a wide selection of foods and also drinks from all the food groups. That also method eating particular things in little amounts, namely saturated fat, cholesterol, basic sugar, salt and alcohol. The score is to take it in all of the nutrient you need for wellness at the recommended levels and also perhaps border those things that room not great for the body. Figure 2.2 reflects you some an excellent sources of micronutrients in a selection of food at a market.


To know if the diet is balanced and also to setup a balanced diet you have to think about two things: the mixture of foods and also the amount of food a person eats.

2.8.1  Helping households to have good balanced diet

The best means to assist individuals in your neighborhood prepare a well balanced diet is to learn which foods people use, the amount of various foods available, and how they prepare your meals. Then you can decide if people need aid or additional support or details to improve the balance of points they eat.

Fat and included sugars come largely from fats, oils and also sweets, but can be component of or included to food indigenous the other food groups as well.

Figure 2.3 reflects a food pyramid. It helps us determine the food groups people should integrate in stimulate to do a balanced diet. The food groups at the optimal of the pyramid should be eaten in moderation (small amount) yet food teams at the bottom of the pyramid have to be consumed in bigger amounts.


2.8.2  The mixture of foodstuffs to use

The staple food is the common kind of food the is consumed by the community. It need to be part of a balanced diet due to the fact that it’s the main part of many meals. The clip diet might vary from region to region. Because that example, ‘injera’ is the staple diet in plenty of sites, maize in various other areas, and ‘kocho’ in the southern component of the country. These foodstuffs are normally cheap, and provide most of the energy, protein and also fibre in a meal, as well as some vitamins.

2.8.3  Adding other foodstuffs to the clip food

In bespeak to have a great balanced diet, human being in your neighborhood will need to eat other foodstuffs in addition to the clip foods. The extr foods space important because they:

Provide nutrients that might not be available in the staple food. Because that example, legumes such together peas, beans and also lentils add protein, iron and also other minerals and fat; green and also yellow vegetables and fruits add vitamins A and also C, folate, and also fibreMake the food less bulkyMake the diet much more tasty and also interesting come eat.

A diet i m sorry is written of staples, legumes and also vegetables or fruit is a good, well balanced diet since this mix of foodstuffs will administer most of the nutrient that the civilization in your ar need. The trouble with the diet over is a absence of pet sources the food. Pet sources are good because lock contain plenty of protein, have high energy (due come the fats), and the stole is easily absorbed compared with the stole sourced from plants. As such adding little amounts of pet products favor meat, milk and eggs to staples, legumes and vegetables will enhance the well balanced diet. And protein, pet foods will also administer fat (for energy) and also vitamins (especially vitamin A and also folate), iron and also zinc. But these foods items may no be easily accessible and even if they are, they space usually expensive.

Think around the types of foods items usually spend by her community and also write a perform of two teams of balanced diets, one with visibility of pet foods and also the other without pet foods.

If girlfriend are developing a diet that includes animal products ‘kocho’ might be the clip food and this might be eaten with fried meat/fried eggs, cabbage and tomatoes.

You can create a well balanced diet by mixing ‘injera’ (as a staple food), stew (‘wot’) make of beans/lentils, oil, ‘shiro’ and also cabbage.

Summary of study Session 2

In study Session 2 you have actually learned that:

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, water and also fibre space the main teams of nutrient which together, but in variable amounts, consist of a balanced diet.Nutrients are grouped right into macronutrients and micronutrients. Carbohydrates, proteins, fats and also water space macronutrients, and also vitamins and also minerals space micronutrients.Although most foods items are mixture of nutrients, numerous of lock contain a many one nutrient and a small of the other nutrients. Foodstuffs are regularly grouped according to the nutrient the they save in abundance. Unsaturated fats are healthy and balanced fats; saturation fats room unhealthy fats. Thus people in your community need to eat more of the unsaturated fat and shot to minimize their input of saturated fats.Vitamins room substances existing in small amounts in foodstuffs and also are vital for the human body to role normally. Vitamins are likewise called protective foods.Minerals have a number of functions in the body including arising body tissues and also supporting metabolic processes. The minerals that room of most importance space calcium, iron, iodine, zinc and fluorine.In bespeak to have a healthy life and great nutritional status, a person needs come eat a well balanced diet. You require to recognize the frequently used food groups in bespeak to advise the human being in your neighborhood on exactly how to have a balanced diet.

Self-Assessment inquiries (SAQs) for research Session 2

Now that you have actually completed this study session, you have the right to assess just how well friend have achieved its learning Outcomes by answering this questions. Create your answers in your examine Diary and also discuss them with your guardian at the following Study assistance Meeting. Girlfriend can inspect your answers through the note on the Self-Assessment inquiries at the end of this Module.

For the complying with nutrients, have the right to you speak why they space important and also name one source? room these foodstuffs micronutrients or macronutrients?

Carbohydrates protein Fats and also oils.

Carbohydrates administer energy. Castle are discovered in numerous foods including bread, potatoes, maize and bananas.

Proteins are important for growth. Castle are found in meat, dairy product products, fish and nuts.

Fat is necessary for energy. That is discovered in meat and also dairy products, avocados, oils and nuts.

They are all macronutrients.

Here space some questions members the your ar might asking you. What answers would you give?

a.A mrs asks friend which is better for she family; pet fats or fish and vegetable oils? b.A kid is carried to the wellness centre with diarrhoea. What is the most important advice to give the mother? c.A male complains the constipation. What foods should girlfriend tell him to encompass in his diet?d.A young boy has a wound i beg your pardon is not healing. You must make certain that his diet includes enough that one particular vitamin. I m sorry vitamin is this and what foodstuffs will provide it? e.A mom says that her son doesn’t favor dairy products. Walk this matter? provide reasons for your answer.
Answera.Fish and vegetable oils are far better than pet fats, which room saturated fats. B.The kid with diarrhoea needs to drink numerous water. C.The man needs to encompass fibre in his diet (e.g. Cabbage, avocado, bananas, legumes and cereals), together this will aid to deal with his constipation. D.Vitamin C, which have the right to be discovered in fresh fruit, is particularly important because that helping to cure wounds. E.Because dairy product products carry out calcium i beg your pardon is important for strong bones and teeth that is vital that youngsters have a sufficient amount in their diet. (Although some other foods likewise contain some calcium.)

Animal resources of food are crucial part that a balanced diet because they add proteins, fat and also vitamins come a diet. In particular, stole is an ext easily absorbed from an pet than a plant source. However, very tiny meat is needed, and if food prefer beans, nuts and also dairy products are included in the diet then a family can have a well balanced diet, without consisting of meat.

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