Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton concept of, proton theory of acids and also bases
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Key People:Johannes Nicolaus Brønsted...(Show more)Related Topics:acidIonic acidConjugate acid-base pairProton donorProton acceptor...(Show more)

Brønsted-Lowry theory, additionally called proton theory of acids and bases, a theory, introduced independently in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and also the English chemist cutting board Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that have the right to transfer a proton to any type of other link is an acid, and the compound the accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear particle with a unit positive electric charge; that is represented by the prize H+ due to the fact that it constitutes the cell core of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of 3 theories of acids and also bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

according to the Brønsted-Lowry system a problem can duty as an acid only in the visibility of a base; similarly, a problem can function as a base just in the visibility of an acid. Furthermore, once an acidic substance loser a proton, it forms a base, called the conjugate base of an acid, and when a basic substance gains a proton, it creates an acid referred to as the conjugate acid of a base. Thus, the reaction between an acidic substance, such as hydrochloric acid, and a straightforward substance, such together ammonia, may be stood for by the equation:

In bespeak to resolve the various challenges in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion interpretations of acids and also bases, a new, more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the acid conjugate come the basic ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the base conjugate come hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry theory enlarges the number of compounds considered to it is in acids and also bases to incorporate not only the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and acetic acids, and the alkali metal hydroxides) but also specific atoms and molecules with confident and negative electrical fees (cations and anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated metal cations are taken into consideration acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ion are thought about bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia ptcouncil.netThis post was most recently revised and also updated by Erik Gregersen, senior Editor.

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