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As early as September 1861, the CSA began issuing nationwide currency, promising to pay the bearer the face amount — 6 months after the ratification of a peace treaty.

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Within job of the autumn of fort Sumter, four much more states join the Confederacy: Virginia, north Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. The fight lines were now drawn.

On paper, the Union outweighed the Confederacy in practically every way. Practically 21 million world lived in 23 northern states. The South asserted just 9 million civilization — consisting of 3.5 million slaves — in 11 confederate states. Despite the North"s greater population, however, the South had actually an army virtually equal in size throughout the an initial year the the war.

The North had actually an substantial industrial advantage as well. At the start of the war, the Confederacy had actually only one-ninth the industrial capacity of the Union. However that statistic was misleading. In 1860, the North manufactured 97 percent of the country"s firearms, 96 percent of its rail locomotives, 94 percent the its cloth, 93 percent of its pig iron, and over 90 percent that its boots and also shoes. The North had actually twice the thickness of railroads per square mile. There was not also one rifleworks in the whole South.


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The southern was at a major disadvantage once it concerned manufacturing, however the Confederacy regulated to save its guns firing by developing ammunition indigenous melted-down bells from churches and also town squares.

All of the primary ingredients the gunpowder to be imported. Because the North controlled the navy, the seas were in the hand of the Union. A blockade might suffocate the South. Still, the Confederacy was no without resources and also willpower.

The South could produce every the food the needed, though transporting it come soldiers and also civilians to be a significant problem. The South also had a an excellent nucleus of trained officers. 7 of the eight army colleges in the nation were in the South.

The South additionally proved come be really resourceful. By the finish of the war, it had developed armories and also foundries in number of states. Lock built huge gunpowder mills and melted down hundreds of church and plantation bells for bronze to construct cannon.

The South"s greatest strength lay in the truth that it was fighting top top the protective in its own territory. Acquainted with the landscape, Southerners might harass northern invaders.

The military and political missions of the Union were lot more difficult to accomplish. The Union had to invade, conquer, and occupy the South. It had actually to damage the South"s capacity and will to resist — a formidable an obstacle in any type of war.


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"We had actually the poorest commissary arrangements, and also all I could get because that my males was salt and also hard crackers. Ns made the convalescents shoot squirrels, soil hogs, pheasants, and also turkeys with which to make soup because that the men." -from the memoirs the Archibald Atkinson Jr., a Confederate surgeon

Southerners took pleasure in the initial advantage of morale: The southern was fighting to preserve its way of life, conversely, the North was fighting to keep a union. Enslavement did not come to be a moral reason of the Union effort until Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863.

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When the battle began, many key questions to be still unanswered. What if the slave says of Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, and Delaware had joined the Confederacy? What if brothers or France had come to the assist of the South? What if a couple of decisive early Confederate victories had turned north public opinion against the war?

Indeed, the phibìc looked much far better on paper. However many components undetermined in ~ the outbreak the war can have tilted the balance sheet toward a various outcome.