Ionic Bonding and also Electron Transfer

An ionic bond outcomes from the transport of an electron indigenous a steel atom to a non-metal atom.

You are watching: Which one of the following compounds contains ionic bonds?


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonds room formed between cations and also anions.A cation is created when a steel ion loser a valence electron if an anion is developed when a non-metal profit a valence electron. Lock both achieve a much more stable digital configuration through this exchange.Ionic solids type crystalline lattices, or repeating trends of atoms, v high melting points, and also are typically soluble in water.Key Termselectrolyte: an ionic link which disappear in H2O, do the resulting solution capable of conducting electricity.electronegativity: The tendency of an atom to tempt electrons come itself.cation: A positively charged ion.anion: A negatively fee ion.

Ionic Bonds

Ionic bonding is a kind of chemistry bond in i beg your pardon valence electron are shed from one atom and also gained by another. This exchange results in a an ext stable, noble gas electronic configuration because that both atom involved. An ionic link is based upon attractive electrostatic forces in between two ion of the contrary charge.

Cations and also Anions

Ionic binding involve a cation and an anion. The shortcut is formed when one atom, typically a metal, loses an electron or electrons, and also becomes a optimistic ion, or cation. Another atom, generally a non-metal, is maybe to get the electron(s) to end up being a an unfavorable ion, or anion.

One instance of an ionic shortcut is the formation of sodium fluoride, NaF, native a sodium atom and a fluorine atom. In this reaction, the salt atom loser its solitary valence electron come the fluorine atom, which has actually just enough an are to expropriate it. The ions developed are oppositely charged and also are attracted to one another due to electrostatic forces.


Formation of NaF: one electron is moved from Na to F. The result Na+ and F– ions space electrically attractive to every other.


At the macroscopic scale, ionic compounds type lattices, are crystalline solids under regular conditions, and also have high melt points. Many of these solids room soluble in H2O and also conduct electricity when dissolved. The capacity to conduct electrical power in solution is why this substances are called electrolytes. Table salt, NaCl, is a good example of this type of compound.

Ionic bonds different from covalent bonds. Both types result in the stable electronic states linked with the noble gases. However, in covalent bonds, the electrons space shared in between the two atoms. Every ionic bonds have some covalent character, however the larger the difference in electronegativity in between the two atoms, the greater the ionic personality of the interaction.


Ionic Bonding – YouTube: In this video, Paul Andersen defines how ionic solids kind when cations and anions space attracted.


Lattice Energy

Lattice power is a measure up of the bond stamin in one ionic compound.


Learning Objectives

Describe lattice energy and also the determinants that affect it


Key Takeaways

Key PointsLattice energy is characterized as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid into gaseous ions.Lattice power cannot be measured empirically, however it can be calculated making use of electrostatics or estimated using the Born-Haber cycle.Two main factors that contribute to the size of the lattice energy are the charge and radius the the bonded ions.Key Termsexothermic reaction: A procedure which releases warm into its surroundings.lattice energy: The lot of energy released upon development of a crystalline ionic heavy from gas ions.

Definition the Lattice Energy

Lattice energy is an estimate of the bond toughness in ionic compounds. The is identified as the heat of formation for ion of opposite fee in the gas phase to incorporate into an ionic solid. Together an example, the lattice power of sodium chloride, NaCl, is the energy released as soon as gaseous Na+ and Cl– ions come together to form a lattice of alternating ions in the NaCl crystal.

extNa^+ (g) + extCl^- (g) ightarrow extNaCl (s) ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Delta H=-787.3 ext kJ/mol

The negative sign the the power is indicative of one exothermic reaction.

Alternatively, lattice power can be assumed of together the power required to different a mole of an ionic solid into the gaseous form of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction presented above).


NaCl Crystalline Lattice: Sodium ion (Na+) and chloride(Cl–) ions, depicted in purple and green respectively, alternating in the crystal lattice of hard NaCl.


Alternatively, lattice energy can be thought of as the power required to different a mole of one ionic solid into the gaseous type of its ion (that is, the turning back of the reaction displayed above).

Lattice power cannot be established experimentally as result of the difficulty in isolating gas ions. The energy value deserve to be approximated using the Born-Haber cycle, or it deserve to be calculate theoretically with an electrostatic check of the crystal structure.

Factors affecting Lattice Energy

In 1918, Born and also Lande presented the following model for lattice energy:

E = - frac N_AMz^+z^-e^24 pi epsilon_o r_o (1-frac 1n)

In this equation, NA is Avogadro’s constant; M is the Madelung constant, which counts on the crystal geometry; z+ is the charge variety of the cation; z– is the charge variety of the anion; e is the elementary charge of the electron; n is the Born exponent, a properties of the compressibility that the solid; epsilon _o is the permittivity of cost-free space; and r0 is the street to the closestly ion.

This model emphasizes two main components that contribute to the lattice energy of an ionic solid: the fee on the ions, and the radius, or size, the the ions. The result of those factors is:

as the fee of the ion increases, the lattice power increasesas the size of the ions increases, the lattice energy decreases

Lattice energies are additionally important in predicting the solubility of ionic solids in H2O. Ionic link with smaller sized lattice energies tend to be more soluble in H2O.


Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe fee on the cations and also anions in one ionic compound deserve to be determined by the loss or get of valence electrons necessary in order to accomplish stable, noble gas digital configurations.The variety of cations and also anions that are an unified in one ionic compound is the simplest ratio of totality integers that have the right to be combined to reach electric neutrality.The cation comes before the anion in both the written form and the formula.Key Termsnoble gas: any of the elements of group 18 of the regular table, which space monatomic and, through very minimal exceptions, inert, or non-reactive.electrically neutral: A net fee of zero, which occurs as soon as an atom or molecule/compound has no excess or deficit of electrons.empirical formula: The simplest whole-number ratio between aspects in a formula the a compound.polyatomic ion: one ion written of number of atoms.

Ionic Compounds

An ionic link is created through the transfer of one or much more valence electrons, typically from a metal to a non-metal, i m sorry produces a cation and also an anion that space bound with each other by an attractive electrostatic force. On a macroscopic scale, ionic compounds, together as salt chloride (NaCl), type a crystalline lattice and also are solids at typical temperatures and also pressures.


Crystalline Lattice: sodium chloride decision lattice


The fee on the cations and anions is established by the variety of electrons compelled to accomplish stable noble gas digital configurations. The ionic ingredient is then defined by the need that the resulting compound be electrically neutral overall.

For example, to integrate magnesium (Mg) and also bromine (Br) to acquire an ionic compound, we an initial note the electronic configurations of this atoms (valence level in indicated in italics):

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p5

In bespeak to accomplish noble gas configurations, the magnesium atom requirements to shed its 2 valence electrons, when the bromine atom, which has actually 7 valence electrons, needs one additional electron to to fill its external shell. Therefore, for the resulting compound to be neutral, two bromine anions must combine with one magnesium cation to type magnesium bromide (MgBr2). In addition, though any kind of ratio the 2 bromine atoms to 1 magnesium atom will accomplish the two demands above, the formula for ionic link is frequently presented together the empirical formula, or the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms with hopeful integers.

Note that the cation constantly precedes the anion both in written form and in formulas. In the composed form, while the cation surname is generally the very same as the element, the suffix of single-atom anions is changed to –ide, together in the instance of sodium chloride. If the anion is a polyatomic ion, the suffix can vary, however is typically either –ate or –ite,as in the situations of salt phosphate and also calcium nitrite, depending upon the identification of the ion.

More examples:

lithium fluoride: Li+ and also F– integrate to form LiFcalcium chloride: Ca2+ and Cl– combine to form CaCl2iron (II) oxide: Fe2+ and O2- integrate to kind FeOaluminum sulfide: Al3+ and S2- combine to type Al2S3sodium sulfate: Na+ and also SO42- combine to kind Na2SO4ammonium phosphate: NH4+ and also PO43- incorporate to kind (NH4)3PO4potassium chlorite: K+ and ClO2– combine to type KClO2

Video Summary


Key Takeaways

Key PointsIonic bonding is presented as the complete transfer of valence electrons, frequently from a metal to a non-metal.In reality, electron density remains shared in between the constituent atoms, definition all bonds have actually some covalent character.The ionic or covalent nature the a shortcut is identified by the relative electronegativities of the atoms involved.Key Termspolar covalent bond: A covalent link that has a partial ionic personality to it, as a an outcome of the distinction in electronegativity between the 2 bonding atoms.electronegativity: A measure up of the propensity of one atom to tempt electrons come itself.covalent character: The partial sharing of electrons in between atoms that have an ionic bond.

Ionic vs Covalent Bonding

Chemical compounds are frequently classified by the bonds between constituent atoms. There room multiple kinds of attractive forces, including covalent, ionic, and also metallic bonds. Ionic bonding models are typically presented as the finish loss or get of one or much more valence electron from a metal to a nonmetal, leading to cations and also anions the are held together by attractive electrostatic forces.


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Ionic bonding: The formation of an ionic bond between lithium and also fluorine to kind LiF.


Example that a polar covalent bond: when a carbon atom develops a bond with fluorine, they share a pair of electrons. However, since fluorine is much more highly electronegative than carbon, it attractive that common electron pair closer to itself and also thus create an electrical dipole. The lowercase greek delta written above the atoms is used to indicate the visibility of partial charges. This bond is thought about to have qualities of both covalent and ionic bonds.


In reality, the bond between these atoms is more facility than this design illustrates. The bond developed between any type of two atom is not a completely ionic bond. All bonding interactions have actually some covalent character since the electron thickness remains shared between the atoms. The degree of ionic versus covalent character of a shortcut is established by the distinction in electronegativity between the constituent atoms. The larger the difference, the more ionic the nature the the bond. In the typical presentation, bonds are designated as ionic as soon as the ionic element is greater than the covalent facet of the bond. Bond that loss in between the two extremes, having actually both ionic and also covalent character, space classified together polar covalent bonds. Together bonds room thought of together consisting that partially charged confident and an adverse poles.

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Though ionic and covalent character represent points along a continuum, this designations space frequently beneficial in understanding and comparing the macroscopic nature of ionic and also covalent compounds. For example, ionic compounds frequently have greater boiling and also melting points, and they are additionally usually more soluble in water 보다 covalent compounds.