The Campaign and Election the 1904:

After Roosevelt acceded come the presidency in 1901, the soon began to think about how to win election as President in his very own right. That realized that although the did not constantly agree v conservative republicans in Congress, he essential their assistance in bespeak to victory the nomination in 1904. To the end, he resolved an expertise with legislators, specifically Senator Nelson W. Aldrich of Rhode Island, which provided him a totally free hand in international affairs in return for holding earlier the more progressive items of his domestic agenda. But TR did no refrain from making use of the executive office to break up monopolies, such together the north Securities Company, to mediate in labor disputes in between unions and management, as he walk in the charcoal miners" strike in 1902, and also to use the White home as a "bully pulpit," from which he lectured the nation on how federal government should regulate large business. Fearful the his anti-corporate sentiments had actually soured party bosses, Roosevelt toned down his rhetoric in 1903. Most importantly, he was able to place his human being in crucial party positions and also maneuvered note Hanna, now the Chairman of the Republican nationwide Committee, to endorse his candidacy several months prior to the 1904 convention. Climate TR turned to the public, holding press conferences, launching a nationwide tour of western says that lasted because that thirty days, and boldly issuing an executive, management order that detailed pensions for all veterans between the eras of sixty-two and sixty-seven.

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With note Hanna"s untimely death prior come the Republican convention in Chicago, one of Roosevelt"s main competitors was gone, making TR"s nomination a foregone conclusion. He was nominated unanimously ~ above the very first ballot. He picked Senator Charles W. Fairbanks the Indiana—a conservative Republican through close ties to the railroad industry—as his to run mate. Once the democracy met in St. Louis, lock picked 2 conservatives, referee Alton B. Parker, from new York, and also eighty-one-year-old Henry G. Davis, a wealthy ex-senator native Virginia and also the oldest male to ever before run because that the vice-presidency. The Democrats, showcasing themselves together the "sane and safe choice," assaulted the Roosevelt administration as "spasmodic, erratic, sensational, spectacular, and arbitrary." republic touted Roosevelt"s document in foreign policy and also promised much more of the same. No Roosevelt no one Parker proactively campaigned because that the presidency, together was the custom. 

Over the summer of 1904, Roosevelt command the project from his former porch at Oyster Bay, issuing lofty statements come his supporters and instructions on strategy come Republican state parties. Roosevelt obtained a huge amount that money because that the campaign from wealthy capitalists, such as Edward H. Harriman (the rail tycoon), Henry C. Frick (the stole baron), and also J.P. Morgan (the jae won potentate of wall Street). The well-off capitalists and also their friends contributed much more than $2 million come Roosevelt"s campaign. They sustained Roosevelt due to the fact that they desired an "unpredictable head of a predictable party" in power 보다 the "predictable head of an unpredictable party." They could have favored Parker together a person, however the democrats were simply too populist in your constituency and also potentially also radical in their principles for the conservative business leaders ever before to trust.

The election, however, had never remained in doubt. TR winner 336 electoral votes come Parker"s 140. He take it every state exterior of the South, including Missouri. Roosevelt was immensely popular and rode come a 2nd term top top a substantial wave of windy support, unlike anything the nation had ever before seen. After ~ the victory, Roosevelt vowed no to run again for the presidency, believing the was way to follow the precedent of just serving two terms in office. However, he pertained to regret the promise in advancement of the 1908 election, believing the still had actually much of his agenda come accomplish. However, he hosted true come his pledge and also supported his favored successor, william Howard Taft, in 1908.

The Campaign and Election of 1912

Before he left office in 1909, Roosevelt hand-picked wilhelm Howard Taft as his successor and worked to acquire him elected. Taft had served in the Roosevelt management as governor of the Philippines and secretary the war. Throughout the election, Taft vowed to operation the nation just together Roosevelt had. Yet the new administration was off come a rocky start with the outgoing President. After reportedly indicating that he would retain many of the existing cabinet members, Taft soon found that he would certainly be better served by his own hand-picked secretaries. Roosevelt was miffed at having actually his room members dismissed and at not being consulted ~ above the brand-new appointments.

After Taft"s inauguration, Roosevelt traveled in Africa and Europe for an ext than a year. He went top top safari through his child Kermit, wherein he acquired an ext than 3,000 pet trophies, consisting of eight elephants, 7 hippos, ripe lions, and thirteen rhinos. He then met up through Edith in Egypt, and also the two of lock journeyed transparent Europe, encountering constant demands to meet and also greet royalty and also politicians. Once the Roosevelts went back to new York in June 1910, they were greeted by among the biggest mass receptions ever before given in brand-new York City.

When he very first arrived back in the unified States, Roosevelt continued to be noncommittal ~ above the Taft presidency. He want time to evaluate Taft"s performance prior to making any type of judgments. However, several of his old friend had already brought him negative reports. Gifford Pinchot was so angry v Taft about conservation the he had previously traveled to Italy to accomplish Roosevelt and discuss the situation. As soon as TR reverted home, he was commonly visited through old friends that decried Taft"s claimed efforts to undo his work.

During this period, progressivism was progressively rising native the local and state level come the national level. Raising numbers of people across the nation supported broadening the function of the federal government to for sure the welfare the the people. Pressured through the gradual wing of the Republican Party to challenge Taft in 1912, Roosevelt weighed his options. Eventually he made decision to throw "his hat into the ring" and also run versus his former protégé.

The republic met in Chicago in June 1912, hopelessly split between the Roosevelt progressives and the supporters of president Taft. Roosevelt came to the convention having won a collection of preferential primaries that put him ahead of the chairman in the race for party delegates. Taft, however, controlled the convention floor, and his backers controlled to exclude most of the Roosevelt delegates by not recognizing their credentials. These techniques enraged TR, who then refuse to enable himself to it is in nominated, paving the way for Taft to success on the first ballot.

Roosevelt and also his supporters abandoned the G.O.P. And reconvened in Chicago 2 weeks later on to type the steady Party. They climate nominated TR together their presidential candidate v Governor Hiram Johnson of California as his running mate. Roosevelt electrified the convention with a dramatic decided in which the announced the "we was standing at Armageddon, and also we battle for the Lord." proclaiming that the felt "as strong as a Bull Moose," Roosevelt offered the new party its popular name—the Bull Moose Party—and explained its party platform together "New Nationalism." that tenets consisted of political justice and also economic opportunity, and it seek a minimum wage because that women; one eight-hour workday; a social security system; a national health service; a commonwealth securities commission; and also direct choice of U.S. Senators. The platform likewise supported the initiative, referendum, and recall as means for the human being to exert more direct control over government. TR worried about the power of the minority—often politicians—over the bulk and assumed these transforms would do government more accountable to the people.

The democrats nominated the reform governor of brand-new Jersey, Woodrow Wilson, because that President and Thomas R. Marshall, the governor of Indiana, as vice president. Wilson"s platform, recognized as "New Freedom," referred to as for boundaries on project contributions by corporations, tariff reductions, brand-new and more powerful antitrust laws, banking and also currency reform, a federal income tax, straight election of senators, and a single-term presidency. Although Roosevelt and also Wilson were both progressives, they differed over the method and degree to which government should intervene or manage the states and the economy.

Differences between brand-new Nationalism and brand-new Freedom end trusts and the tariff ended up being a main issue of the campaign. Roosevelt believed the federal federal government should act together a "trustee" because that the American people, controlling and also supervising the economic situation in the general public interest. Wilson had higher reservations about a big federal government and also sought a go back to a more decentralized republic. He argued that if large business were deprived of man-made advantages, such together the safety tariff and also monopolies, the natural forces of competition would assure everyone an equal opportunity at success—thus minimizing the function of government. Vice versa, Roosevelt differentiated between "good" and "bad" trusts, Wilson suggested that all monopolies to be harmful come the nation. Roosevelt"s vivid personality aided him get rid of the disadvantage that running as a third-party candidate, and he and also Wilson contended fiercely for the support of voters interested in reform. Close to the finish of the campaign, TR dramatized his vitality through insisting top top finishing a project speech also with an assailant"s bullet lodged in his chest. Fortunately, the bullet had been slowed down by the pages of a thick speech he had in his coat pocket, but Roosevelt"s courageous—perhaps foolhardy—act reminded americans of what they loved about him.

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Wilson recorded 41.9 percent of the vote to Roosevelt"s 27.4 percent and also Taft"s 23.1 percent. Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs winner 6 percent of the vote. Regardless of the divided popular vote, Wilson compiled 435 electoral votes contrasted to Roosevelt"s 88 and also Taft"s 8. Roosevelt winner in 6 states—California, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, south Dakota, and also Washington. Despite its loss, the solid showing of the steady Party signaled the introduction of a far-ranging force in U.S. Politics history. It likewise reflected a rising gradual spirit in the unified States. In addition to Wilson and Debs, Roosevelt had tested the conservative soup of the Republican Party and left it discredited. In addition, return TR lost the election, much of his brand-new Nationalism program was enacted throughout Wilson"s presidency.